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کارآرایی تندخوانی

ایا واقعا تندخوانی کارایی دارد؟ اگر آری چگونه؟

Does speed reading really work? If so, how? It depends what you are using speed reading for. If it is to locate information, then yes. If it is to comprehend and retain information, then no. The danger of speed-reading is that because of the way short term and long term memory interact during the working memory phase, people believe they are learning. But two hours later, they have lost much of that information. Academic study after academic study has found no benefit to reading comprehension and retention from speed reading. In fact studies show dramatic losses of comprehension and retention when "reading" gets above 600 words per minute (an average reader is between 200-300 words per minute. Adept readers can read up to 400 wpm). Many of the "studies" cited by people that sell speed-reading as a product do not meet academic testing standards or are clearly manipulating the numbers. Through training and practice, people with a 200 wpm speed can get to the point where ~350 wpm is comfortable and normal for them. But all the marketing slogans that promise 1200 – 2000 words per minute are snake oil. I was assigned to examine speed reading to see if it would benefit our training programs and decrease the time it takes to certify employees. We gathered dozens of studies and found no convincing evidence that speed reading would benefit our employees..

یادگیری تندخوانی

چگونه تندخوانی را بیاموزیم

Wikihow How to Learn Speed Reading Three Parts:Learning to Read FasterFurther Speedreading ExercisesSkimming Text Faster Whether you're hitting the textbooks in philosophy class, reading long-winded emails from co-workers, or just reading the morning newspaper, chances are at one time or another you've wished you could read a little faster. Follow these instructions to train yourself in faster general reading, extreme speed reading, or skimming. Keep in mind the last two will not let you absorb as much information, but are still excellent tools to have 1 Pick your approach depending on your goal. • The instructions in Learning to Read Faster are great for increasing the speed of your reading without losing too much comprehension, including someone who wants to become an extreme speed reader. • If you're trying to cram for a test faster or browse magazines more quickly, take a look at the section on Skimming Text Faster. • If you want to learn to read books extremely quickly and don't need to understand them fully, browse these tips first before moving on to Further Speedreading Exercises. Part 1 of 3: Learning to Read Faster 1Stop imagining the spoken word. Even if you don't mouth the words silently as you read them, chances are good you "subvocalize," or imagine the words being spoken aloud.[1] This is useful for difficult texts, but mostly just slows you down needlessly. • Stop yourself whenever you notice this happening. Being conscious of the habit can be enough to minimize it. • If you can't stop, try quietly chanting something repetitive such as "1 2 3 4" or "A E I O U."[2] Stop if the chanting distracts you from reading. • Groups of words are harder to vocalize, so practice reading in blocks using the techniques below to help with this issue as well. • If you are physically moving your lips as you read, hold a finger against them while reading to stop this habit. 2 Take in groups of words. Instead of reading each word separately, train yourself to understand a group of words at once. This requires less eye movement, which in turn makes reading much faster.[3] • Hold the book or screen a little farther from your eyes than you are used to as you read to take in more words at once. • Soften your gaze and relax your face. If you are too focused and tense, you won't be able to see the words farther from your center of vision. • Follow along with a pencil or other object as you read, but hold it slightly above the text to make your eyes focus on a wider area. 3 Train yourself not to read the same passage twice. Most people frequently stop and skip back to words or sentences they just read to try to make sure they understood the meaning. This is usually unnecessary, but it can easily become a habit, and many times you will not even notice you're doing it. • Use an index card or pen to hide the words you've already read, training your eyes not to move backward. 4 Find a quiet, well lit environment. Even if you think you read better when you have music playing or when you're in a crowded coffee house, you will understand the text much better if you reduce distractions to a bare minimum. Try to find a solitary, well lit place to read, and turn off the TV, radio, and cell phone.[4] • If no solitary place is available, try using earplugs to block out any distractions around you. • Light is important even when reading on a computer screen. • Reading in bed makes many people sleepy. Try sitting up at a desk, with your book tilted at a 45º angle away from you.[5] 5 Read when you're alert and engaged. Some people function well in the morning, while others think better in the afternoon. Save important reading for those times of day.[6] • Start a reading session by reading the important material first, when your eyes and brain aren't tired out. • Ask questions to yourself as you read the text or the chapter headings, and search for answers as you read. This keeps you focused and avoids daydreaming or other mental distractions.[7] 6 Adjust reading speed depending on the material. Even this one article probably contains advice you've already heard as well as some that's completely new to you. A good reader slows down to understand something complex and speeds up through familiar sections. • Don't be afraid to fall back on "bad habits" to understand a text better. If you are reading a difficult book and don't have a time limit, feel free to reread sections or read them aloud in your head. In fact, you can use these tools to better effect now that you're aware of them! Part 2 of 3: Further Speedreading Exercises 1 Understand types of reading. Speed reading is a set of techniques for blitzing through a book or article. You don't skip any sections, but your comprehension will suffer. Skimming involves only reading the most important sections in order to gain a shallow understanding, and does not require a fast reading rate. Finally, you should read every word carefully if you want a deep understanding of a text. • Speed reading software and apps often claim not to affect your comprehension, but this is only true up to a certain reading speed: possibly around 500 words per minute, although research results are divided on the exact number.[8] 2 Pick fun, easy reading material to train with. Something enjoyable and easy to comprehend will keep you focused and quick, which is great while you're practicing. • Don't practice on a book with many pictures and diagrams among the text, since that interrupts your pace and makes it hard to measure. • A book that remains open when lying flat makes it easier to perform some of these exercises. 3 Time your reading speed regularly. Not only will timing help you to know whether you're improving, trying to beat your best speed is great motivation. • Count the number of words on a page, or count the number in one line and multiply by the number of lines on the page to find this number.[9] • Set a timer for ten minutes and see how much you can read in that time while understanding the text. • Multiply the number of pages you read by the number of words per page and divide by the number of minutes spent reading to get your words per minute or wpm, a common measurement of reading speed.[10] • Alternatively, you can search for an online "speed reading test," although you will probably read at a different pace from a screen than from a printed page.[11] 4 Read faster than you can understand. Many programs claim to increase your reading speed by training your reflexes first, then practicing until your brain can catch up.[12] This can be effective, but be wary of exaggerated claims not backed up by research. • Run a pencil along a text at a rate of one second per line. Say "one one thousand" in a calm voice as you move the pencil and time it so you reach the end of a line at the same time you're done with the phrase. • Spend two minutes trying to read at the pace of the pencil. Even if you can't understand anything, keep focused on the text and keep your eyes moving for the entire two minutes. • Rest for a minute, then go even faster. Spend three minutes trying to read at the pace of a pen that moves across two lines every time you say "one one thousand". • Practice these exercises every day or few days. Eventually you may be able to understand more of the text at this pace, and even if you don't your regular reading speed may improve. 5 Reduce the number of eye movements. Moving your eyes several times per line is unnecessary. Here is an exercise you can practice to keep your eyes as still as possible while reading:[13] • Take an index card and place it over a line of text. You can use a magazine printed in narrower columns if the index card doesn't cover the entire line. • Make two Xs at the base of the index card, dividing each line into three roughly equal sections. • Read quickly as you move the index card down, trying to only focus your eyes just below each X. Focus below the first X and read the first half of the line, then move once to just below the second X and read the second half of the line 6 Narrow the range of your eye movements. Pencil a light vertical line about two words from the left margin, and another one about the same distance from the right. Try to read quickly without moving your eyes further than those lines.[14] • You can combine this with the "read faster than you can understand" exercise described earlier. Move a pen only between the two vertical lines as you try to read at a pace of 1 second a line or 1/2 second a line. Continue for two or three minutes even if you understand very little. Regular practice can improve your reading speed. • Calmly saying "one one thousand" is a good estimate of one second to get your pen rate correct. It doesn't need to be exact. 7 Use speed reading software. Free online programs such as Spreeder can train your reading to high speeds by using electronic methods such as flashing a sequence of words on your screen in the same spot. Similar programs are available for your phone as well. • Be wary of paying for software like this before you've done your research. • While you can read at extreme rates using this kind of software, your comprehension will likely suffer. Part 3 of 3: Skimming Text Faster 1 Know when to skim. Skimming can be used to gain a shallow understanding of a text. It can be used to scan a newspaper for interesting material, or to get the important concepts out of a textbook in preparation for a test. It's not a good replacement for thorough reading 2 Read the titles of sections. Begin by only reading the chapter titles and any subheadings at the start of large sections. Read the headlines of each newspaper article or the table of contents in a magazine.[15] • This should give you a good idea which sections you need to or want to read more in depth and which sections you already know about 3 Read the beginning and end of a section. Textbooks usually contain introductions and summaries of each chapter. For other texts, just read the first and last paragraph of a chapter or article. • You can read quickly if you're familiar with the subject, but don't try to speedread as fast as possible. You're saving time by skipping most of the section, but you do need to understand what you're readin 4 For unfamiliar sections, skim the text in between. If you still wish to learn more, brush your eyes rapidly across the page rather than reading normally. Now that you know the gist of the section, you can pick out key nouns and verbs that give you a little extra information. • When you see a complex or interesting key word, stop and read that paragraph. • Diagrams are another signal that a section may be worth paying closer attention to. • 5 • If you still need detail, read the start of each paragraph in that section. The first one or two sentences of each paragraph will teach you a surprising amount of information.[16] 6 Move through each section the same way. Read the beginning and end; skim the middle; and read the first sentence of each paragraph if you need detail. • You don't need to follow every step for every section. You can always move on to a new section if you feel you are familiar enough with the current topic. 1. • ↑ http://www.mindtools.com/speedrd.html 2. • ↑ http://www.artofmanliness.com/2009/10/18/how-to-speed-read-like-theodore-roosevelt/ 3. • ↑ http://www.mindtools.com/speedrd.html 4. • ↑ http://www.mindtools.com/speedrd.html 5. • ↑ http://www.learningtechniques.com/speedreadingtips.html 6. • ↑ http://www.learningtechniques.com/speedreadingtips.html 7. • ↑ http://www.learningtechniques.com/speedreadingtips.html 8. • ↑ http://lifehacker.com/the-truth-about-speed-reading-1542508398 9. • ↑ http://fourhourworkweek.com/2009/07/30/speed-reading-and-accelerated-learning/ 10. • ↑ http://www.gradschools.com/article-detail/speed-reading-1564 11. • ↑ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18802819 12. • ↑ http://fourhourworkweek.com/2009/07/30/speed-reading-and-accelerated-learning/ 13. • ↑ http://www.gradschools.com/article-detail/speed-reading-1564 14. • ↑ http://fourhourworkweek.com/2009/07/30/speed-reading-and-accelerated-learning/ 15. http://www.mindtools.com/rdstratg.html 16. • ↑ http://www.brainpickings.org/index.php/2013/01/16/how-to-read-faster-bill-cosby/

اعتماد به نفس هنگام مطالعه

سرعت مطالعه خود را با اعتماد به نفس هنگام مطالعه بالا ببرید

Improve Your Reading Speed by Trusting Your Brain To improve your reading speed, you have to start trusting your brain. I promise that if you start trusting your brain more, you will have an easier time breaking your old reading habits and learning new ones. It’s about time you start trusting your brain anyway and here’s why. Without your brain, you could not have come as far in life as you’ve come already. Every step of the way, your brain has been right alongside you. Well, it’s actually been up in your head, but when I say it’s beside you, it sounds more like a friend. Stop and think for a moment of everything your brain has already helped you through – learning to eat and walk, your teen-aged years, your education and your jobs, your relationships, sports, driving; everything that you have ever done in your life, you have done with the help of your brain. And whether you want to believe it right now or not, your brain is fully capable of understanding all of the information it reads – the first time you read it, even if you don’t read that information word-for-word. How can I be so certain? Because of all of the things you already know. If you know something, doesn’t it mean that your brain knows it, too? Of course it does. Everything your brain already knows is called your background knowledge, and you have a lot of it. Background knowledge is a compilation of every single thing you already know. And a big part of it includes all of the words currently in your vocabulary and all of your past life experiences. As you’ll learn later on when we’re developing speed reading skills, your vocabulary, which by now is far more extensive than it was when you first learned to read, is going to help you make split-second predictions about the words and word phrases that you read. And all of your previous life experiences are going to help you better understand all different types of reading materials you’ll encounter. All I want you to understand right now is that your background knowledge plays a key role in your ability to increase both your reading speed and your comprehension. If you’re still unsure about the connection, think about this. If you do a lot of traveling, you probably have an easier time understanding travel-related reading material, right? But when you read about a topic you’re not very familiar with, like maybe your homeowner’s insurance policy, wouldn’t you agree reading becomes more difficult, even slower? Sure you would. But what you may not realize is that whenever you read unfamiliar material, there is almost always something in your background knowledge that you can draw upon to help you become more familiar with an unfamiliar topic. For example, if you’ve lived in a home before, you can call upon that experience that’s maintained inside your brain to help you understand all of the different things inside and outside your home that are and are not covered in your insurance policy. When you learn how to use your brain in this way, you will have learned a very effective way of broadening your knowledge base. Now let me finish off by pointing out something else I’ve learned from all of the years I’ve taught speed reading: The people with the most background knowledge are typically the people who have the most success with improving their reading speed. If you recall, I began this post discussing the importance of knowledge. Back then I told you that knowledge is power and that knowledge attracts others and helps you reach your goals. I also said that having knowledge means being able to comprehend what you read, retain it, and recall it when you need it. I told you then that learning to speed read will help you gain more knowledge because you’ll be able to read more with better comprehension. And as a result, reading will become more enjoyable. Now I’m telling you that having more knowledge will facilitate increased reading speed. So what does all this mean? It means that the more you read, the more you know, and the more you know, the faster you read. And the faster you read, the faster you gain more knowledge. And the more knowledge you gain the more power you have. Beautiful, isn’t it? Here’s one final thought. Every single day you have an opportunity to broaden your knowledge simply by living and being inquisitive, but mostly by reading. Whether you read at the library or online, or you pick up a book that’s been sitting on your bookshelf for as long as you remember doesn’t matter. All you have to do is find something you’re not familiar with, read it, and when you’re finished, you will know more than you did before you started reading. And that is how you build more knowledge. By learning how to increase your reading speed and learning to read with better comprehension, you will be able to read more than you ever could before. As a result, you will also build knowledge faster than you ever could before and faster than people who don’t speed read! And that’s going to give you the competitive edge you need to succeed in today’s increasingly competitive world. Now that’s some powerful stuff, isn’t it!

تندخوانی و درک بالا

با انجام یک سری تمارین خواهید توانست سرعت مطالعه خود را همزمان با درک صحیح، بالا ببرید

Speed Reading: 10 Tips to Improve Reading Speed & Reading Comprehension by Speed Reading Expert, Richard L. Feldman, Ph.D. (Columbia University) 10. Read Early in the Day Many people can double their reading speed and improve their concentration by reading the material that’s important to them early in the day. 9. Prioritize Your Reading Create three piles for your reading materials – important, moderately important, and least important. Then read the material in their order of importance. You’ll improve your reading speed by doing this, and improve your reading comprehension by getting to the important material first, when your mind is clear and sharp. 8. Skim Material First for Main Ideas Speed read for main ideas in nonfiction works like how-to books and educational texts. Scan the table of contents and first and last sentences of each paragraph. You’ll improve your reading speed and comprehension if you understand a book’s structure first. This will help you know which parts of the book to skim and which parts to read more carefully. 7. Form a Question Improve your reading comprehension, reading speed, and concentration by turning headings and subheadings in textbooks and other nonfiction books into questions. Then scan the text for the answers. Your reading speed improves by doing this, and you become focused on your material. 6. Read in the Proper Environment Prop your book or magazine using a bookstand – angling your reading material at 45 degrees improves your reading speed and reduces eyestrain. Avoid reading difficult or important material in bed, where your mind and body tend to relax. You’ll stay alert if you sit at a desk instead. 5. Write a Course of Action on Correspondence Improve your reading speed and avoid re-reading correspondence by jotting brief notes immediately after reading each piece of correspondence. Simply refer to your notes on each piece when you’re reading to respond some time later. 4. Avoid Highlighting Although readers believe that highlighting in yellow (or any other color, for that matter) improves their reading speed and comprehension, the reverse is actually true. Highlighting simply means they don’t want to bother learning the material right now. The result: They end up reading the material twice, and possibly not understanding or remembering it either time! 3. Preview Before Reading Look through material first to get a sense of what’s interesting and important to you, and what you might be able to skip. Then focus on the sections that you need to understand and remember, and skim or skip the rest. 2. Use a Flexible Reading Speed Some reading material must be read slowly and carefully: legal contracts, mathematical equations, and poetry are a few examples. Other reading material can be read at much faster speeds: newspapers, magazines, and novels. Adjust your reading speed to the type of reading material and your reading purpose. 1. Enroll in a Speed Reading Class Avoid on-line speed reading courses and do-it-yourself speed reading software. They don’t work. Speed reading is best learned in a speed reading class taught by a knowledgeable, experienced, speed reading expert. If you are in New York, New Jersey or Connecticut, I’d love to see you in my speed reading course in New York. My speed reading course described in Bob Crawford’s blog ©2015 Learning Techniques®

تندخوانی برای کوددکان

حتی اگر خودتان نیز نمیخواهید تندخوانی را بیاموزید، آنرا به کودک خود آموزش دهید

Teach speed reading to your children even if you can’t speed read yourself By George Stancliffe Bachwoods Home Magazine http://www.backwoodshome.com/articles/stancliffe59.html Issue #59 • September/October, 1999 For over two years, I have had the hobby of teaching speed reading to people in the community where I live. So far I have taught over 300 people (most of them children) to speed read. As a result of the many classes I've taught, I've made some observations: Children learn the speed reading skill far more easily than adults. Children master the skill far more completely than adults do. It literally becomes a natural part of them if they learn it by age 12 or so, just as much as speaking. English is a natural part of them. In fact, recently I made the discovery that children learn to speed read so easily that you can teach kids to speed read even if you don't know how to speed read yourself. Impossible? Not at all. I even tested the idea out on some school teachers and homeschoolers who gave it the acid test. They did just fine. One homeschooling mother got her 11-year-old daughter to read comfortably at 12,000 words per minute (most adults read at about 250 to 300 wpm). An English teacher at a local high school got two thirds of her class to catch on to speed reading within four weeks at an average speed of about 4,000 wpm. Others who gave this concept the acid test had similar results. Let me repeat: The instructors did not know how to speed read themselves. So why can't I just learn speed reading first, before teaching it to my kids? You can, but in my experience as an instructor, it isn't going to happen. It's at least 10 times harder for an adult to learn speed reading than it is for a child. By the time you finish struggling through the process yourself you will be so weary that you'll doubt that children are capable of learning it at all. Teaching it is really the easy part. I've checked out a number of commercially available speed reading courses and they usually don't even allow kids under 11- to 13-years of age to enroll. That's too bad. Ninety percent of my very best students were 12 and under. Most of the rest were aged 13 to 14. Older kids can get good at speed reading but they have to work harder at it. The professionals are locking out most of their star students and only admitting their worst prospects. I believe they don't promote their speed reading courses to kids for three reasons: Money. The adults have it, the kids don't. The methods they use to teach speed reading are so rigorous that no young children could survive them. I took one speed reading course that required one hour of homework each night, much of it in the form of written notes or "recall patterns." No kids will ever keep up with that amount of paperwork. It probably has never occurred to them that children could master the speed reading skill very easily, as long as it's presented to them in the right way. The following method for teaching kids to speed read may not be the only way to teach them. It may not even be the best. But I haven't come across any other that is so simple. And no other method I am aware of allows a non-speed reader to teach it effectively. This article is an abbreviated plan for teaching your kids to speed read. Keys to speed reading There are four major keys to learning to speed read: Natural vision Visualize Relax Daily practice Let me briefly explain each one. Natural vision: Take a minute right now and look at a picture. Let's just say that you're looking at the Mona Lisa. When you look at her does your vision narrow down to tunnel vision so that you see just her left eye? Of course not. Yet when we look at a page of print we have been trained to have tunnel vision. You may as well read through a straw. You need to look at a page of print with the same natural vision that we use to see a whole picture at once. With natural vision you use your whole field of vision (peripheral vision) to catch large blocks of print on a page. You not only see 3 to 10 words per line, but you also see 3 to 10 lines of print at once also. Using your natural vision to see the words is the chief cornerstone of speed reading. There are many different ways of seeing all the words on a page using your natural vision. By experimenting you will find the method that works best for you. (Figure 1.) Visualize: Have you ever read a really good book, one that was so good that you felt that you were living inside the story, or you were able to picture it in your mind so well that it was like watching a good movie? Well, that is your goal when you visualize. Figure 1. There are different ways of seeing all the words on a page using natural vision. By experimenting you will find the method that works best for you. Figure 1. There are different ways of seeing all the words on a page using natural vision. By experimenting you will find the method that works best for you. The trouble is that your mind has never visualized like this while reading before, so it will take effort to jump-start the visualization process. In fact, for the first day or so, it may seem impossible. But keep trying anyway. Relax: Normally, when people concentrate on something they focus their minds on something and become somewhat mentally tense. With speed reading it is different. To get maximum comprehension, one must be relaxed while concentrating (visualizing). One can get a feel for this relaxed feeling after doing the casual reading exercise that I explain later. Once you get a feel for how to properly relax while visualizing, it will become easier to become relaxed whenever you speed read. Daily practice: The importance of daily practice cannot be overstated. After teaching many speed reading classes, one trend has become obvious: Those who practice daily are the ones who get really good at speed reading while those who neglect it don't get good at it. Of course, all is not lost if you forget to practice once or twice each week. But the more you skip practice, the worse your end result will be. This is especially true for adults. Sometimes I get kids who forget to practice regularly who still catch on to speed reading. However, they don't get as good as the kids who are diligent in their practice. I recommend at least 15 minutes of relaxed, casual speed reading each day. This is in addition to the regular lessons. Preparation & equipment Before we start, here's the preparation we need to make: Mark out on the calendar one month that you will stick to the program of at least two speed reading lessons per week. Of course, the more lessons you have per week, the better your results tend to be. This is because even when the kids forget to practice on their own, they will still get some daily practice for that day during the lesson. When I teach a speed reading class twice a week, I make the lessons 90 minutes long. However, when I teach daily classes, 25 to 30 minutes is sufficient, as long as you make good use of your time. One homeschool parent I know found it more effective to break practice sessions up into 15 minute blocks, twice per day. Her daughter got to where she could cruise at over 10,000 words per minute with good recall. Collect enough interesting reading materials. Anything that is easy to read and interesting is appropriate: Goosebumps, Hardy Boys, Babysitter's Club, etc. But please note: a few kids have difficulty catching on to speed reading using books containing regular-sized print. So what I usually do is start all of them off, for the first day or two at least, with something that has very large print. If they are 10-years-old or older, the large-print edition of Reader's Digest magazine is good. If that is too technical for them, then the Little Sisters series by Ann M. Martin has the largest-sized print that I've seen for regular reading books for kids. Try that. After a few days, at most, they should ease their way into normal-sized print. All these materials should be easily available at your local library. Yard sales and Goodwill are another possible source. You'll need a watch with a second hand for timing regular drills and tap drills. You may need to make arrangements with other homeschoolers to get enough kids together to do a class. It has been my experience that kids learn to speed read better in a group setting than they do in a tutoring environment because in any group of 6-10 kids, there is almost always at least one kid who will catch on to the skill immediately, usually within three days or so and sometimes on the very first day. The others will try hard, but may not get it for a couple of days more. If there isn't someone in the group who catches on to speed reading really soon, it is easy for most kids to give up on speed reading after the first week. Outwardly they may go through the motions, but secretly they are saying, "This is baloney, nobody can read this fast." To keep the kids (and adults) motivated, it is important to insure that there is at least one kid in the class that will be the catalyst that will help motivate the others. Once they see others speed reading in real life, or even doing it themselves, it is much easier for them to "remember" to practice every day on their own. Also plan to have a minimum of two months follow-up after the initial month of instruction. This consists of getting them into the habit of always speed reading 10-15 minutes per day on a continuing basis. This is not only easy to do, but it's necessary. This 10-15 minutes should be spent speed reading books that are enjoyable to the child. No pressure. Just, "Here, read this book and tell me about it." That's it for the day. Most kids can speed read a fun book in 10 minutes or so. Now that you have made the preparations for teaching the course, it is time to discuss the basic activities that take place during class time. After that I will present a simple lesson plan that will help you to quickly see how a block of class time should proceed. Basic class activities Drills: A drill is a timed period (usually 30 seconds long) in which the student speed reads as many pages as he can. Afterwards, he reports on what he recalls to the instructor or to a class partner. Speed reading drills help to build speed. They are short enough to enable the student to recall at least some of what he reads, yet long enough to make a significant dent in a reading selection. I encourage students to see at least six pages during a drill. It's common for 10-year-olds to be two or three times faster than this. While doing drills, the focus is on visualization. Of course, we attempt to recall what we can immediately after each drill. But good recall may not always be attained. Sometimes there may not be any recall at all. This is okay. Just the effort to visualize, alone, is the main point of the drill. After a couple of weeks, fair comprehension (35% to 65%) is commonly attained in drills. I come at the comprehension figure by just asking the student, "About how much of the material are you understanding?" The students actually have a pretty good idea of how much they've learned. Reading speed during drills is different for each student. Some kids only see 6 pages, while others can read 15 to 20 pages, or more, with good comprehension during one drill. Drill sets: In this course, speed reading drills are arranged into sets of three drills each. This is for the purpose of building greater speed and comprehension than would be achieved by reading each selection only once. Commonly, on the first drill, a student will read only a few (example: five or six) pages in 30 seconds, and his comprehension will be not-so-good. I'll count any comprehension, even if he understood it only as he was reading through the selection but forgot it immediately. However, the second time through the same story, he will often go faster, like seven or eight pages, and he will comprehend it better at the same time. Then, finally, on the 3rd drill, the student will often be capable of even better speed and comprehension. Tap drills: Tap drills are absolutely essential to building and maintaining high reading speeds with good comprehension. Here's an example of how I do them: Give the students three seconds to complete each page. Tap your pen on the table every three seconds for about three minutes. Then give them another three-minute tap drill at two seconds per page. Finish off with a one second tap drill for three more minutes. I usually do two or three tap drills per day just after a series of drill sets, but they can be useful any time the kids are starting to slow down too much. Casual reading: Usually, at the end of each lesson I have 5 to 10 minutes of what I call "Casual Speed Reading" or just Casual Reading. The goal is to learn to relax while concentrating and visualizing. Go through the book at a comfortable rate, usually about three to five seconds per page—faster if you wish. Just make sure it is an even methodical pace. Don't worry if you have already read part of the book before while you are going through. Keep alert, deep seeing large groups of words with your peripheral vision. Keep trying to Visualize and Relax at the same time. While students are doing the casual speed reading, discreetly time how many seconds per page they are reading. This way you can calculate an approximate reading speed for them. Many children's books have around 200 words per page, so six seconds per page would be 2,000 wpm; 4 seconds per page, 3,000 wpm; 2 seconds, 6,000 wpm; and 1 second, 12,000 wpm. During the casual speed reading, quietly announce to each student what his reading speed is so that each will know his progress. I also ask them how much they are understanding. Often it is quite a bit. I have found that this alone motivates kids more than almost anything else. They had no idea that they could read 3,000 wpm or better. That's 10 times faster than most college graduates. Occasionally, someone will get bogged down in an interesting story and revert to the old way of reading. When this happens, just encourage him to speed up next time. Fun rewards: Bored children will not practice on their own, no matter how much you nag. Uninterested kids will not even believe that speed reading is possible. I vividly recall one class of third and fourth graders I taught. On the second day of class I nonchalantly asked them which ones had practiced for at least 15 minutes the previous night. Only three children raised their hands. I then pulled three packs of Grandma's Cookies out of a hiding place, tossed them to the diligent ones for a reward, and announced to the others, "Gee, that's too bad nobody else remembered to practice." A few happy kids ate cookies in front of their friends that day. That's bad manners, but it's good motivation. Nobody forgot their homework again. I reward the kids for their efforts every day. I also reward them for achieving their goals in any activity that I can think of to keep the excitement up. I rarely forget to bring something for those who make the effort. It makes a big difference. Lesson plans For these lessons I am assuming a 45 minute block of time is available each day for five days per week. This course will last for four weeks. Lesson 1: The lesson plan for Lesson 1 is different from the rest of the lessons. That is because this is where the children are introduced to all of'the basic concepts and activities of speed reading. After Lesson 1, the rest of the lessons are pretty similar, the main differences only being the alterations you make to tailor the course to fit your needs. Conduct Lesson 1 as follows: 1. Pre-test the students to tabulate current reading speed. 2. Explain natural nision. Give the kids five seconds to see all the words on one page using Natural Vision as you've explained it. Tell them, "Do not try to understand anything. If you understand anything you are going too slow." Repeat this step, if necessary until all the kids understand the concept of Natural Vision. 3. 30 Seconds: See all the words clearly, on as many pages as you can. Do not try to understand anything. This is only for the purpose of getting used to using your Natural Vision. If the kids aren't seeing at least six pages of print clearly, repeat this step so they learn to go fast. 4. 30 Seconds: Going at least as fast as you did in step 3, try to understand one word per page. Do not slow down for this. Don't stop so that you can better focus in on any particular word. Only use your Natural Vision. Report how many pages you covered. Usually, if you concentrate, a random word will jump out at you from somewhere on the page. Don't slow down to think about it when it jumps out at you. Just keep going fast. Also, this word will vanish from your mind just as fast as it came. Don't worry about that. It still counts. Recall will come later with time and practice. 5. 30 Seconds: Understand 3 words per page, otherwise same rules as for step 4. Report how many pages you covered. 6. 30 Seconds: Understand five words per page. Same rules as step 5. 7. 30 Seconds: Understand seven words per page. Same rules as step 5. 8. By now they should be used to using their Natural Vision. We will now work on Visualization. 30 Seconds: See as many pages as you can, and try to get a general understanding of what the story is about. Do not slow down. At least, try not to slow down. Try to Visualize as much as possible. Don't worry if you forget everything immediately after the drill, this is a common occurrence at this point. Just do your best. 9. 30 Seconds: Do the same reading selection again that you did in step 8. Tell the instructor all about it, especially anything new that you didn't catch the last time. 10. 30 Seconds; Same as step 9. 11. Tap drill. Three seconds between each tap for 2 minutes. If anybody finishes their book during the tap drill, they can either start the book over again or pick up another book quickly and keep on going. Remind the kids during the tap drill to focus their energies on trying to visualize and relax at the same time. Even if they feel like they are getting nothing out of it, they are to at least see all the words on each page with their Natural Vision and try to Visualize and Relax. 12. Two-Second Tap Drill. Same as step 11, but two seconds between each tap. 13. One-Second Tap Drill. Same as step 11, but only one second between each tap. 14. Casual Reading. They should speed read fast enough to challenge themselves, but slow enough to get some enjoyment value out of it. Try not to go slower than five seconds per page. If only one kid is going too slow, overlook it. But if much of the class is starting to slow way down, start tapping your pen at five seconds per tap and tell them they have to go as fast as the taps or faster. During the Casual Reading let each child know approximately how fast he is reading. 15. Assign the kids to practice on their own with Casual Reading for 15 minutes tonight. Lessons 2 to 20: 1. Reward those who practiced for at least 15 minutes last night. 2. Do a Drill Set (three drills) at 30 seconds per drill in the same story or selection. Divide the class into groups of two or three students per group. Have each student tell all their recollections to their partner. Have them be sure to always use Natural Vision and try to Visualize in all their speed reading from now on. 3. New story or section. Repeat step 2. 4. New story or section. Repeat step 2 again. 5. Three-Second Tap Drill for three minutes. Remind the kids to Visualize and Relax during each Tap Drill. 6. Two-Second Tap Drill for three minutes. 7. One-Second Tap Drill for three minutes. 8. Casual Reading. Have them go fast enough to be challenged, yet slow enough to get some enjoyment out of it. As the kids are speed reading, go to each one and tell him or her how fast he or she is reading. If any of the children are still using very large print materials, try to wean them off them and onto more normal-sized print by Lesson 5. On Tap Drills, kids are always allowed to go faster than the taps if they wish, but not slower. After Lesson 10 you may want to spend more time on three to five minute Casual Readings, followed by telling your partner all about it, and less time doing the drill sets. After Lesson 10 you may want to skip the three-second Tap Drill. Throughout the course, remind the students that they should practice for 15 minutes each day, after the four-week course ends, for the following two months. More would be better. If practicable, make a poster and put it on the wall to remind everyone. Or send a note home to parents to make sure it gets done. Comprehension So that you won't get discouraged in the middle of the course, you need to know what to expect. The only kind of comprehension I look for is what I sometimes call "passing through" comprehension. That is, those things that you understand while you are just passing through the reading material. If you understand 70% of the material while you are reading, but one second after finishing you can only remember 20%, I still stand by the 70%. Why? Because the only difference between the two is time and regular use of the skill. The part of your brain you use for speed reading has never been used before. And just like a broken leg that has been in a cast for six months and can't yet support you. This part of your brain has no strength to hang on to any comprehension at first. But if you exercise your brain regularly by using your speed reading talent, your ability to recall what you recognize while passing through will increase dramatically. Figure 2. This chart shows how the students' comprehension develops slowly at first, then improves at an accelerated pace before tapering off as it nears 100%. Figure 2. This chart shows how the students' comprehension develops slowly at first, then improves at an accelerated pace before tapering off as it nears 100%. So the real goal to shoot for is the passing-through comprehension. The long-term recall will just take care of itself with time and regular use. There is another matter which concerns some kids with regard to comprehension. Some people who don't catch on to speed reading as quickly as others get frustrated because their comprehension isn't increasing as quickly as others in the same class. I diffuse this frustration by explaining that everybody learns this at a different rate and it has nothing to do with IQ. I draw my Comprehension Chart (Figure 2) and explain the Three Stages of Comprehension that we all go through while learning to speed read: Stage 1: The Beginner's Stage. This is the first part of the course when we are seeing many words and understanding almost nothing. Some children pass out of this stage on day one. Some adults stay here for three weeks. Most children that I teach stay here for about a week. However, if you are teaching a very small class chances are you may not have that one student who catches on and leads the way and your students may remain at this stage longer than average. Stage 2: This is the Growth Stage. Your mind is finally able to begin grasping the skill and making sense of the material at high speeds. Comprehension may increase steadily over two weeks time to 60% to 80%. Or it may shoot up to 70% to 90% in just a day or two for some kids. Stage 3: This is the Power Stage. This is where speed reading begins to be a powerful tool for learning. Comprehension almost levels off, usually at around 60% to 80%. Some kids reach this stage within two days. Others need a few weeks. After this, the comprehension slowly increases just a little bit more each week as it gets closer and closer to 100%. Day by day a student won't notice any improved comprehension. But week by week, or even month by month, the differences will be noticed. The Power Stage is also the time when the brain bridges the "recall gap," where the long-term recall begins to catch up with the "passing-through" comprehension. As always, this happens much more quickly for children than for adults. Questions and answers Q. If I learn to speed read, will I still be able to read the old way whenever I need to? A. Yes. They are two different skills. You'll find that you will prefer to use speed reading for some jobs and regular reading for others. Q. I want to learn speed reading too. Should I try to teach myself to speed read while I am teaching the kids? A. I don't recommend it. It usually messes up the system. If you want to teach yourself to speed read, I recommend you teach the kids first and yourself later, or have one of the kids help you through it. Q. Is it true that some kids develop photographic memories as a result of mastering the skill of speed reading by the age of 10? A. In some cases, I believe this to be true. However, more research needs to be done in this area. Q. How young can kids be taught to speed read? A. I teach anybody that is reading competently on the 3rd grade level or better, regardless of age. Q. What about those video or audio courses? A. I'm sure those courses are good, but they are geared for adults, not kids. Even so, I've never encountered anybody who mastered speed reading from a video course, have you? I believe the reason that in-class courses with real, live teachers are more successful is because in a live class everybody is accountable to a teacher for completing each assignment. However, in video courses, there is no accountability. Finally, not too long ago, while I was at the library making some copies, a 10-year-old girl came in. I saw her go up to the checkout desk with a stack of five books. I recognized her as Shawna, who had been in one of my speed reading classes over a year ago. I asked her if she still speed reads and she said she does. Of course, I expected this from looking at the five books she had. Her mother was standing nearby and said that Shawna reads books really fast. Meanwhile, Shawna went back to fetch more books from the shelves. Moments like this make me glad that I teach speed reading.

خواندن گسترده، بادرک و سرعت بالا

The Reading Matrix Vol. 1, No. 1, April 2001

The Reading Matrix Vol. 1, No. 1, April 2001 EXTENSIVE READING: SPEED AND COMPREHENSION Timothy Bell E-mail: timothy@hsc.kuniv.edu.kw Abstract ________________________ Claims that extensive reading could lead to significant improvements in learner's reading speeds date back thirty years, and the role of graded readers in programs to promote such reading has an even longer history. Studies that measure reading speeds have been relatively few and far between however, and those that do exist rarely evaluate reading speed in relation to the effect of different classroom methodologies in the teaching of reading. Early work on reading speed tended to focus on the development of techniques to help learners to read faster, and failed to recognize the importance of varying the speed according to the reader's purpose in approaching a text. Such techniques as have been employed on speed reading courses also tend to cause readers to suffer lower levels of reading comprehension. The study reported in this article was conducted in the Yemen Arab Republic on young adult students working in various government ministries. It measured both reading speeds and comprehension in two groups of learners exposed to "intensive" and "extensive" reading programs respectively. The "extensive" group was exposed to a regime of graded readers while the "intensive" group studied short texts followed by comprehension questions. Results indicate that subjects exposed to "extensive" reading achieved both significantly faster reading speeds and significantly higher scores on measures of reading comprehension. ________________________ Introduction A widely recognized problem faced by learners throughout the ESL/EFL world is that of slow reading (Hamp-Lyons 1983; Cooper 1984). This has often been linked with classroom methodology in reading lessons, particularly where such lessons focus on language development rather than reading per se. A number of specialists have commented on a common practice in intensive reading lessons, where texts are often treated as vehicles for the presentation, practice, manipulation, and consolidation of language points, rather than the encouragement of reading itself (Nuttall 1982:20; Alderson & Urquhart 1984:246-247; Bartram & Parry 1989:7; Hyland 1990:14; Susser & Robb 1990:161-162). Slow reading as a problem for learners has been defined by Brown & Hirst (1983:140) as a "weakness independent of the purpose of reading", involving the processing of information at such a slow rate that the reader is unable to hold enough detail in short-term memory to permit decoding of the overall message of the text. In this context it should be noted that different reading purposes require different reading speeds, and though the development of adequate reading speed should receive a high priority in our learning programs, we should also recall, as Nuttall (1982) does that reading speed without comprehension is worthless. Therefore, the current study seeks to locate the twin issues of reading speed and reading comprehension within the framework of a comparison of intensive and extensive classroom reading procedures. Background Studies The use of graded readers dates back to the time of the writings of Michael West in the 1950s, and it was in the 1960s that interest in reading speed gained momentum through the writings of Fry (1963) and De Leeuw & De Leeuw (1965). Fry claimed that good readers achieve a speed of 350 words per minute, fair readers 250 words, and slow readers reach 150 words per minute. De Leeuw cited 230- 250 words per minute as an average initial speed for the general public. These early insights led to growth in the development of speed reading courses, and to the belief that individuals requiring to read faster could be trained to do so through the use of paper-based techniques, and also by way of technological aids such as metronomes, and projectors or reading machines. Maddox (1963:85) criticized the use of such machines claiming that mechanical devices are "in no way superior to the method of timed practice", and Bright & McGregor (1970:96) wrote in similar vein that it is "the gimmick that stimulates interest and not the practice itself". Data-based evaluations of reading speed courses were offered by Hill (1981), and Richard (1982). Hill examined a course in 'rapid' or 'effective' reading with advanced students at the university of Leuven in Belgium. Using the program developed by De Leuw & De Leeuw (op cit), he showed that his advanced students could achieve an average increase in their reading speeds of 57% over a three year period. In terms of the speed categories used in the course, an average student therefore progressed from the 'slow' band (200 words per minute) through to the 'medium fast' category (314 wpm). Some of his subjects reached speeds of 600 words per minute or better leading him to claim that "students and others who read extensively for professional purposes should aim to cover routine material at speeds between 300 and 600 words per minute" (Hill 1981:271). Richard (1982), working in Japan, compared the reading speeds of students using traditional paper exercises with those using a reading machine (projector), and found that speeds in the latter group increased significantly more than in the former (p < .05). Two areas of enquiry into reading speed seem to be suggested by the above. Comparisons of courses using traditional speed reading methodologies with programs emphasizing reading in quantity would appear to be the first. The second area would examine extensive reading and intensive reading and compare their relative effectiveness in developing basic reading speed. On the second area of enquiry, it is important to note that a number of researchers have warned of the possible negative consequences of intensive reading on reading speeds (Light 1970; Hamp-Lyons 1983; Cooper 1984; Kerecuk & Velloso Ribeiro 1984; Hino 1988; Brusch 1991). On extensive reading however, it was first claimed by Light (1970:122) that such reading would not only raise reading speeds, but importantly would reduce the negative affective consequences of slow, text-based, intensive approaches. More recently, Williams (1984:96) has argued for extensive reading as a way to develop adequate general reading speed, and Hill (1986:17) calls for the provision of class sets of graded readers as a means to the same end. The next issue to be examined is the relationship between reading speed and reading comprehension. While it is generally argued that the two are closely related (Broughton et al 1978; Nuttall op cit; Champeau de Lopez 1993), the precise nature of the link between them has been the focus of an ongoing debate lasting more than half a century. They may be completely independent, or correlated, or cause and effect. What is thought clear however, is that a very slow reader is more likely to read with little understanding, as his memory is taxed by the inability to retain information in sufficiently large chunks to progress through a text with adequate retention of the content in the message. Before he reaches the end of a page, or even of a sentence, he has forgotten the beginning. Champeau de Lopez (1993:50/51) makes the useful distinction between 'timed readings', in which learners read at their own pace and then calculate their speeds in words per minute, and 'paced readings' where the teacher controls the time allowed and taps on the desk to indicate times when a certain marked place in the text should be reached. In her study, carried out in Venezuela, she found that students increased their reading speeds on average from 120 to 170 words per minute ( a 50% increase), after following a course based on a combination of timed and paced readings. However, she also noted a slight drop in comprehension over the same period, from 78% to 67%. This reminds us of the danger referred to earlier, of developing reading speed at the expense of comprehension (Berkoff 1979; Nuttall op cit). Coady's advice (1979:12) on this point appears salutary "....... comprehension is achieved by reading neither too fast nor too slow". In line with these warnings, Lai (1993), in a study carried out on students in Hong Kong secondary schools, found that although subjects' gains in reading speed were significant, gains in reading comprehension were not. A more comprehensive review of studies into extensive reading will not be attempted here, as there are excellent reviews already in print (Susser & Robb 1990; Day & Bamford 1998). Numerous studies have measured reading comprehension, as these reviews indicate, but few of them have compared extensive reading with other classroom approaches to reading. Elley & Manghubai's (1983) book flood project remains by far the most convincing evidence of the value of reading books for pleasure and in quantity. Indeed, Anderson, Wilson & Fielding's (1988) study on fifth graders seems to confirm that gains in reading speed and comprehension appear to be most closely related to the number of books read. Growth in reading proficiency generally may be a function not only of reading interesting material for pleasure, but of doing so in quantity by reading a large number of books. As already indicated, few studies have actually related classroom reading methodology to the variables of reading speed and comprehension. One such study was Robb & Susser (1989). They compared extensive reading with a 'skills-building' approach and found that subjects in the former group made significantly greater gains in reading speeds and on some of their measures of reading comprehension. Measurements made on 'getting the main idea' and 'making inferences' did not, however, reach significant levels. Both this study, and those reviewed above seem to suggest that gains in reading speed may be easier to accomplish than advances in reading comprehension, and therefore that the former objective should not be prioritized at the expense of the latter, if we wish to serve the interests of ESL/EFL learners in reading development and improvement. Method Two groups of elementary level learners (n = 26) at the British Council English Language Centre in Sana'a, Yemen were exposed to differing reading programs. The experimental group (n= 14) received an extensive reading program consisting of class readers, a class library of books for students to borrow, and regular visits to the library providing access to a much larger collection of graded readers (up to 2000 titles). The study extended over a period of two semesters and the reading program covered one quarter of the total class time (36 out of 144 hours). The extensive reading program is described in detail in Bell (1998). An inventory of readers was compiled, and reading records maintained to record titles read and the time subjects spent reading each week. The control group (n = 12) received an entirely different reading program which was intensive in character, being based on the reading of short passages and the completion of tasks designed to 'milk' the texts for grammar, lexis, and rhetorical patterns. For this purpose, the control group made a detailed study of the title 'Basic Comprehension Passages' by Donn Byrne (Longman:1986). This text contains thirty short texts of around 300 words each, arranged in groups of ten, together with a wide variety of exercise types for intensive exploitation of the passages. These exercises included a variety of standard reading comprehension questions, referential questions, cloze, gap-fills, multiple choice and true/false items, and guided composition, together with word building exercises and dictation passages following each unit. The aim of the approach was to recycle and reinforce language items through intensive microlinguistic analysis of the texts. Taken in sequence, the units provided a carefully structured and graded course in reading comprehension. Subjects in the 'intensive' or control group were directed to read these passages and complete the accompanying exercises in a series of homework assignments over the duration of the study. For both subject groups therefore, a great deal of reading was done, both in class and for homework. Records of time spent reading each week were maintained for both classes, and there was no significant difference in the time the two classes spent on their reading (t = 0.32). The reading done by both groups was carefully monitored by checking on homework assignments, requiring subjects to write book reports and to give oral presentations in class on the books they had read. For research purposes reading speed was defined as 'speeds measured in words per minute on selected texts at a level appropriate to the learners'. Likewise, reading comprehension was defined as 'scores on a test of reading comprehension with three texts accompanied by questions containing modified cloze, true/false, and multiple choice items respectively'. Two texts were selected for the measurement of reading speed (see Appendix 1) based on considerations of teacher preference, readability evaluations (Fry 1977), and the length of the texts. For the measurement of reading comprehension, three texts were selected (see Appendix 2), again with reference to teacher's views, length of texts, and readability measurements. In measuring reading comprehension, it was felt important to include a range of task types and test items, so as to achieve validity and reliability in the tests designed and selected. In reporting final results for reading comprehension it was decided to adjust the weightings of the three components of the reading comprehension test in order to reduce the effect of the multiple choice and true/false items on the overall result. This was because of the negative effect of guessing on the reliability of these test types (Weir 1990:43-44). The following hypothesis were tested in the study: Learners in the 'extensive' group will achieve significantly faster reading speeds than those in the 'intensive' group as measured on relatively easy, non-problematic texts. Learners in the 'extensive' group will achieve significantly higher scores on a test of reading comprehension containing texts at an appropriate level, than those in the 'intensive' group. In measuring reading speed, subjects were first assured that the exercise would not form part of their assessment and they were then told to read at normal speed. They were given a time limit of three minutes and told that when the researcher banged on the desk they were to mark the word they had reached with a cross (x). Measurements were taken twice using selected texts (see appendix 1). Speeds were then calculated in words per minute and tabulated. For the reading comprehension tests, a time limit of 30 minutes was set for each test. Brief examples of how to complete test items were provided, examination conditions established, and the tests administered. All tests were administered prior to the study in September 1993, and again on completion in February 1994. Results Results are presented as both raw test scores and as gains for both reading speed and reading comprehension. Statistical comparisons were made using the 't' test for correlated samples to compare scores prior to, and after the study on the same group. To compare performance between the groups, the 't' test for independent samples was used. Results for reading speed are presented in tables 4.1 to 4.5, and for reading comprehension, results are presented in tables 4.6 to 4.13. Table 4.1 Reading Speed – Texts 1 and 2 Combined n Intensive Pre-Study Intensive Post-Study Extensive Pre-Study Extensive Post-Study 1 67.5 73 57 141.5 2 76 81.5 79 112.5 3 87.5 114.5 64.5 150.5 4 51 60.5 78 156 5 66.5 76 42.5 81 6 96 116 95.5 164 7 96 105 85.5 143 8 57.5 73 65.5 88 9 87.5 104 52 126 10 96.5 117 59.5 160.5 11 84 104 65.5 152 12 75.5 86 82.5 113.5 13 ----- ---- 60.5 82 14 ----- ---- 65 115 Total 941.5 1110.5 953.5 1783.5 Mean 78.45 92.54 68.10 127.53 Note: All speed are in words per minute Table 4.2 Reading Speed – Texts 1 & 2 Combined t – TEST RESULT Intensive Correlated t = 7.14 *** df = 11 Extensive Correlated t = 8.31 *** df = 13 Pre–Study Independent t = -1.77 ns df = 24 Post-Study Independent t = 3.51 *** df = 24 Table 4.3 Reading Speed: Analysis of Gains Texts 1 and 2 Combined n Intensive Post-Study Intensive Pre-Study Gain Extensive Post-Study Extensive Pre-Study Gain 1 73 67.5 +5.5 141.5 57 +84.5 2 81.5 76 +5.5 112.5 79 +33.5 3 114.5 87.5 +27 150.5 64.5 +86 4 60.5 51 +9.5 156 78 +78 5 76 66.5 +9.5 81 42.5 +38.5 6 116 96 +20 164 95.5 +68.5 7 105 96 +9 143 88.5 +57.5 8 73 57.5 +15.5 88 65.5 +22.5 9 104 87.5 +16.5 126 52 +74 10 117 96.5 +20.5 160.5 59.5 +101 11 104 84 +20 152 65.5 +86.5 12 86 75.5 +10.5 113.5 83.5 +30 13 ---- ---- ---- 82 60.5 +21.5 14 ---- ---- ---- 115 65 +50 Intensive Group Extensive Group Total Gain 169 Total Gain 832 Mean Gain 14.08 Mean Gain 59.42 Note: All Speed are in words per minute Table 4.4 Reading Speed – Analysis of Gains Post-Study t-test for Independent Samples Result Reading Speed Text 1 t = 3.84*** df = 24 Reading Speed Text 2 t = 6.56*** df = 24 Text and 1 and 2 Combined t = 5.70*** df = 24 Note: * = p<.05 ** = p<.01 *** p<.001 Table 4.5 Reading Speed: Comparison of Means Intensive Group Pre-Study Text 1 Text 2 Means of means 84.3 72.08 78.46 Post Study Text 1 Text 2 Mean of means 98.58 86.50 92.54 Change in mean speed = +14.08 wpm Extensive Group Pre-Study Text 1 Text 2 Means of means 67.78 68.43 68.10 Post Study Text 1 Text 2 Mean of means 117.36 137.71 127.53 Change in mean speed = + 59.43 wpm Table 4.6 Modified Cloze-Test n Intensive Pre-Study Intensive Post-Study Extensive Pre-Study Extensive Post-Study 1 10 (40%) 11 (44%) 16 (64%) 20 (80%) 2 7 (28%) 10 (40%) 13 (52%) 22 (88%) 3 5 (20%) 7 (28%) 12 (48%) 19 (76%) 4 14 (56%) 19 (76%) 7 (28%) 20 (80%) 5 6 (24%) 6 (24%) 8 (32%) 17 (68%) 6 17 (68%) 22 (88%) 14 (56%) 21 (84%) 7 18 (72%) 22 (88%) 8 (32%) 18 (72%) 8 16 (64%) 17 (68%) 17 (68%) 22 (88%) 9 20 (80%) 23 (92%) 14 (56%) 23 (92%) 10 17 (68%) 16 (64%) 15 (60%) 22 (88%) 11 10 (40%) 14 (56%) 8 (32%) 19 (76%) 12 --- --- 13 (52%) 20 (80%) 13 --- --- 13 (52%) 20 (80%) 14 --- --- 17 (68%) 21 (84%) Total 140 167 175 284 Mean 12.72 [a] 15.18 [b] 12.50 [c] 20.28 [d] Mean% 50.88 60.72 50.00 81.12 Note: Scores are expressed as totals out of 25 and as percentages. Table 4.7 Modified Cloze-Test t-test Result Intensive Correlated t = 4.03** df = 10 Extensive Correlated t = 11.30*** df = 13 Pre-Study Independent t = -0.13 ns df = 23 Post-Study Independent t = 3.01** df = 23 Table 4.8 Combined Scores of Multiple Choice and True/False Tests n Intensive Pre-Study Intensive Post-Study Extensive Pre-Study Extensive Post-Study 1 13 16 8 17 2 9 13 8 19 3 9 12 10 19 4 14 14 10 17 5 6 11 9 19 6 9 13 9 18 7 10 13 9 16 8 9 12 8 17 9 9 12 9 20 10 10 13 6 18 11 12 16 9 18 12 -- -- 10 17 13 -- -- 11 16 14 -- -- 13 18 Total 110 145 129 249 Mean 10.00 [e] 13.18 [f] 9.21 [g] 17.78 [h] Mean% 45.45 59.90 41.86 80.81 Table 4.9 Multiple Chose + True/False Questions t-test Result Intensive Correlated t = 8.44*** df = 10 Extensive Correlated t = 14.99*** df = 13 Pre-Study Independent t = -1.02 ns df = 23 Post-Study Independent t = 8.26*** df = 23 Table 4.10 Reading Comprehension – Analysis of Gains - Multiple Choice + True/False n Intensive Post-Study Intensive Pre-Study Gain Extensive Post-Study Extensive Pre-Study Gain 1 16 13 +3 17 8 +9 2 13 9 +4 19 8 +11 3 12 9 +3 19 10 +9 4 14 14 0 17 10 +7 5 11 6 +5 19 9 +10 6 13 9 +4 18 9 +9 7 13 10 +3 16 9 +7 8 12 9 +3 17 8 +9 9 12 9 +3 20 9 +11 10 13 10 +3 18 9 +9 11 16 12 +4 18 9 +9 12 -- -- --- 17 10 +7 13 -- -- ---- 16 11 +5 14 -- -- ---- 18 13 +5 Intensive Group Extensive Group Total Gain 35 Total Gain 120 Mean Gain 3.18 Mean Gain 8.57 Table 4.11 Reading Comprehension Gains Post-Study t-test for Independent Samples Result Modified Cloze Test t = 5.22*** df = 23 Multiple Choice + True/False Questions t = 7.40*** df = 23 Note: * = p<.05 ** = p<.01 *** p<.001 Table 4.12 Reading Comprehension – Analysis of Gains Modified Cloze Test n Intensive Post-Study Intensive Pre-Study Gain Extensive Post-Study Extensive Pre-Study Gain 1 11 10 +1 20 16 +4 2 10 7 +3 22 13 +9 3 7 5 +2 19 12 +7 4 1 14 +5 20 7 +13 5 6 6 0 17 8 +9 6 22 17 +5 21 14 +7 7 22 18 +4 18 8 +10 8 17 16 +1 22 17 +5 9 23 20 +3 22 15 +7 10 16 17 -1 22 17 +5 11 14 10 +4 19 8 +11 12 -- -- --- 20 13 +7 13 -- -- ---- 20 13 +7 14 -- -- ---- 21 17 +4 Intensive Group Extensive Group Total Gain 27 Total Gain 105 Mean Gain 2.45 Mean Gain 7.50 Table 4.13 Adjusted Weightings for Reading Comprehension Test Scores Mean Scores Intensive Pre-Study Intensive Post-Study Extensive Post-Study Extensive Post-Study Modified Cloze Test Original Mean 12.72 [a] 15.18 [b] 12.50 [c] 20.28 [d] Adjusted Mean [*] 15.94 19.02 15.66 25.41 M/C + T/F Original Mean 10.00 [e] 13.18 [f] 9.21 [g] 17.78 [h] Adjusted Mean [*] 7.12 9.38 6.55 12.65 Total of Adjusted Means 23.06 28.40 22.21 38.06 Group Mean Scores (%) 49.06 60.42 47.25 80.97 Change in Mean Scores (%) Intensive Group 60.42 – 49.06 = +11.36% Extensive Group 80.97 – 47.25 = +33.72% Discussion The hypothesis that learners in the extensive group would achieve significantly faster reading speeds than subjects in the intensive group is very strongly supported by the data; the large and significant differences between the reading speeds of the two groups at the end of the study, the much greater gains in speed achieved by the extensive group, and the fact that the intensive group were faster readers at the start of the program (the direction of the difference being reversed by the end of the study) all support this conclusion. The first important observation on these results is that the reading program based on grade readers, to which the extensive group were exposed, has brought about much more substantial gains in basic reading speed than the traditional close reading techniques applied to the intensive group. The numerical comparisons presented in tables 4.1 to 4.5 show this to be the case. In particular, the large and significant difference on gains in reading speed strongly suggests that an extensive reading program based on graded readers is much more beneficial to the development of reading speed than traditional reading lessons based on the close study of short texts. We may conclude therefore that these results imply that reading speed will develop naturally if learners are motivated to read interesting simplified material like graded readers that are accessible linguistically. They would also appear to question the need for courses in rapid or speed reading, except perhaps for learners in EAP situations, where the need to develop faster reading speeds to cope with large volumes of material might call for more urgent surgery. These results certainly also suggest that certain task types used in intensive reading lessons (eg. referential questions, re-ordering sentences, matching, gap-filling, etc) may impede the development of learners' reading speeds, even if they do not actually bring about slower reading speeds. It is important in this regard not to overlook the fact that subjects in both groups in this study did actually increase their reading speeds. The results of the reading comprehension tests also provide very strong support for the hypothesis that learners in the extensive group would achieve significantly higher scores than learners in the intensive group. Large and significant differences between the groups were recorded on all three tests, with the extensive group obtaining significantly higher post-study scores and large and significantly greater gains in reading speed. The results presented in tables 4.6 to 4.13 clearly confirm this. It can be concluded therefore that the extensive reading program based on graded readers has led to much greater improvement in learners' reading comprehension than traditional text-based, intensive language exploitation activities. In spite of the fact that one of the stated objectives of the material used by subjects in the intensive group was a 'close and detailed understanding of the text', it appears that this approach is much less successful in developing comprehension than providing learners with attractive, high-interest story books, which learners are well-motivated to read and understand. Given that the gains in reading speed have been accompanied by similar large and significant differences in the performance of the two groups on the reading comprehension tests (the extensive group clearly outperforming the intensive group on both sets of tests), these results point to a powerful role for graded readers and extensive reading in stimulating reading improvement with elementary level learners. With freedom to select material according to their interests, and with associated high motivation, these learners are not only achieving substantial improvements in their reading speeds, they are importantly achieving a greater understanding of the material. In contrast with the speed reading approaches discussed in our background review, there is no retardation of reading comprehension ability when simplified and motivating reading materials are used. A number of important limitations to these findings need to be highlighted. The first is that the number of subjects on which these results were obtained is small (a total of only 26 across the two groups). With a larger group it would have been possible to include another control group and possibly another treatment group exposed to a different variation of extensive reading. Practical realities, unfortunately, precluded such endeavors. A second important limitation is that the validity and reliability of the instruments used to measure reading speed and comprehension need to be established by correlating them with standard tests of reading comprehension. As indicated earlier, the validity and reliability of the multiple choice and true/false tests is highly questionable, which is why the reading comprehension test scores were modified as described. It is possible that the Hawthorne Effect, Halo Effect, and Subject Expectancy (Brown 1988:33-34) all exerted some influence over the results. Subjects in the extensive group were certainly aware of being involved in a separate and special reading program, and the high profile of the research could have led subjects to 'assist' the researcher by modifying the motivation of learners in the extensive group, and therefore their performance on the tests. One drawback of this type of data collection is that in order to motivate learners to read, it is necessary to discuss with them the potential benefits of such reading. This may be considered incompatible with the objective measurement of the performance variables of reading speed and comprehension. However, such limitations affect all studies of extensive reading, and there is no reason to suppose that such issues have influenced the results of this investigation more than in any other. While the above factors certainly account for part of the performance gap between the groups, they clearly cannot account for very large differences in reading speeds and comprehension test scores uncovered by this study. The measured gains in reading speeds were four times greater in the extensive group, and the gains in reading comprehension were three times greater in this group. Clearly, this data points to the importance and effectiveness of extensive reading, and to the inherent problems with intensive reading approaches in the classroom. Intensive approaches, because they focus on language manipulation rather than developing reading, tend to inhibit reading improvement among learners at low proficiency levels. Extensive reading in contrast, seems to liberate the learner from slow reading speeds, and lead to genuine comprehension of what is being read. There has been much discussion recently about the role of extensive reading in developing automaticity of word recognition and in promoting lexical access skills. Further research will certainly be needed if we are to eventually understand exactly how simplified, pleasure-driven, highinterest materials like graded readers contribute to the development of bottom-up decoding processes. Future studies need to examine the relationship between reading speed and reading comprehension more closely. Possible questions include: Is there an optimum speed for the processing of a particular text and the extraction of meaning from it? 2) Is there a threshold speed below which processing and comprehension becomes impossible? Longitudinal studies on the comparative effects of different methodologies on reading speeds and comprehension in a variety of ESL/EFL settings are needed, along with attempts to discover what linguistic and rhetorical features of graded materials promote the most efficient decoding by readers. Tim Bell has taught ESL/EFL extensively in Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East. He has worked as a language teacher, project advisor, consultant, ESP, EAP and EST specialist in a total of eleven countries. He currently works in the Faculty of Medicine at Kuwait University, and has registered for his doctoral studies with Berne University. Note: Reproduction of these texts was not possible on the website, however, the following information is provided. Appendix 1: Reading Speed Texts 1. Inspector Holt - The Bridge, John Tully, Nelson Collins/Nelson English Library, Level Two. 2. So You Want To Change Roles, Catch 6, 1976, CATCH magazine, Mary Glasgow Publications. Appendix 2: Reading Comprehension Texts (Selected/Adapted from) 1. Modified Cloze Wullen, T.L., (1978). Roland and Harriet, Practice in Comprehension and English Usage. Hulton Educational. 2. Multiple Choice Mainwaring, F.M., (1964). Looking at Life, London:Longman. 3. True-False Packer, J. (1975). Sinking For Your Supper, Current 1, CURRENT magazine, Mary Glasgow Publications. References Alderson, J.C. & Urquhart, A.H. (eds.) (1984). Reading in a Foreign Language. London: Longman. Anderson, R.C., Wilson, P.T., & Fielding, L.G. (1988). Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside of school. Reading Research Quarterly, 23(3) (pp 285-303). Bamford, J. (1984). Extensive Reading by means of graded readers. Reading in a Foreign Language, 2(2), (pp 218-260). Bartram, M., & Parry, A. (1989). Penguin Elementary Reading Skills. London:Penguin. Bell, T.G. (1998). Extensive Reading: Why? And How? Internet TESL Journal Vol IV, No 12, December 1998. (On-line). Available at http://www.aitech.ac.jp/`iteslj/Articles/Bell-Reading.html Berkoff, N.A. (1979). Reading skills in extended discourse in English as a Foreign Language. Journal of Research in Reading, 2, (pp 95-107). Bright, J.A., & McGregor, G.P. (1970). Teaching English as a Second. Language. London: Longman. Broughton, G., Brumfit, C., Flavell, R., Hill, P. & Pincas, A. (1978). Teaching English as a Foreign Language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Brown, J.D. (1988). Understanding Research in Second Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brown, P. & Hirst, S.B. (1983). Writing Reading Courses: The Interrelationship Of Theory and Practice. In Brumfit, C.J. (ed) (1983). Language Teaching Projects For The Third World. ELT Documents 116. British Council English Teaching Information Centre. Brusch, W. (1991). The role of reading in foreign language acquisition: designing an experimental project. English Language Teaching Journal, 45(2), (pp 156-163). Byrne, D. (1986). Basic Comprehension Passages. Harlow: Longman. Cooper, M. (1984). Linguistic competence of practiced and unpracticed non-native readers of English. In Alderson & Urquhart (1984). Coady, J. (1979). A psycholinguistic model of the ESL reader. In R. Mackay, B. Barkman, & R.R. Jordon (Eds), Reading in a second language (pp 5-12). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Champeau de Lopez, C.L. (1993). Developing Reading Speed. English Teaching Forum, 31(1), (pp 50/51). De Leeuw, E., & De Leeuw, M. (1965). Read better, read faster. London: Penguin. Day, R.R., & Bamford, J. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Elley, W.B., & Manghubai, F. (1983). The effect of reading on second language learning. Reading Research Quarterly, 19(1), (pp 53-67). Fry, E.B. (1963). Teaching faster reading: a manual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fry, E.B. (1977). Fry's readability graph: Clarifications, validity, and extension to level 17. Journal of Reading 21, (pp 242-252). Hamp-Lyons, E. (1983). Developing a course to teach extensive reading skills to university-bound ESL learners. System 11, (pp 303-312). Hill, J. (1986). Using Literature in Language Teaching. London: Macmillan. Hill, J.K. (1981). Effective reading in a foreign language. English Language Teaching Journal, 35, (pp 270-281). Hino, N. (1988). Yakudoku: Japan's Dominant Tradition in Foreign Language Learning. JALT Journal, 10 (1/2), (pp 45-55). Hyland, K. (1990). Purpose and strategy: Teaching extensive reading skills. English Teaching Forum, 28(2), (pp 14-17, 23). Kerecuk, N., & Velloso Ribeiro, O. (1984). The Book Club Project, Modern English Teacher, 12(1) (pp 18-24). Lai, F.K. (1993). The effect of a summer reading course on reading and writing skills. System, 21, (pp 87-100). Light, T. (1970). The reading comprehension passage and a comprehensive reading program. English Language Teaching, 24, (pp 120-124). Maddox, H. (1963). How to study. New York: Fawcett World Library. Nuttall, C. (1982). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language. London: Heinemann Educational. Richard, W. (1982). Improving Reading Speed in Readers of English as a Second Language. JALT Journal, 4, (pp 89-95). Robb, T.N., & Susser, B. (1989). Extensive Reading vs Skills Building in an EFL context. Reading in a Foreign Language, 5(2), (pp 239-249). Susser, B., & Robb, T.N. (1990). EFL Extensive Reading Instruction: Research and Procedure. JALT Journal, 12(2), (pp 161-185). Weir, C. (1990). Communicative language testing. Prentice Hall. Williams, E. (1984). Reading in the language classroom. London: Macmillan.

خواندن گسترده

نقش راهکارهای سرعت خواندن در خواندن در حال توسعه درک در میان دانش آموزان دبیرستانی 2 در زبان انگلیسی

English Language Teaching; Vol. 7, No. 6; 2014 ISSN 1916-4742 E-ISSN 1916-4750 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 168 The Effect of Speed Reading Strategies on Developing Reading Comprehension among the 2nd Secondary Students in English Language Mahmoud Sulaiman Hamad Bani Abdelrahman1 & Muwafaq Saleem Bsharah1 1 Curricula and Instruction Department, Al-Hussain Bin Talal University, Jordan Correspondence: Mahmoud Sulaiman Hamad Bani Abdelrahman, Curricula and Instruction Department, Al-Hussain Bin Talal University, Jordan. Tel: 962-772-618-395. E-mail: Abugaith66@yahoo.com Received: December 17, 2013 Accepted: April 3, 2014 Online Published: May 15, 2014 doi:10.5539/elt.v7n6p168 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v7n6p168 Abstract This study aimed to find the effect of speed reading strategies on developing reading comprehension among second secondary literary stream students in English language. The sample of the study consists of (42) students assigned into two groups who were chosen randomly from schools, a controlled group (21) students, and an experimental (21) students trained on speed reading strategies during the academic year 2013/2014. The study used a training material, pre and post reading comprehension tests were administrated (Rababa’h, 1991). T. test results revealed that there were significant differences at (α ≤ 0.05) among the students’ means in favor of the experimental group. In the light of the results, it is recommended that teachers should train students extensively on the use of speed reading strategies. Key words: comprehension, English language, speed reading, strategies 1. Introduction One of the skills in learning English language which should be focused on is the reading comprehension. So, as it is shown, it is given an appropriate weight in the textbooks in Jordanian schools. The main aim of teaching reading is to enable students to comprehend reading from different contents easily. (Ministry of Education, 2002) Farstrup (2002) stated that teachers should be aware and knowledgeable of many instructional methods and strategies available to promote students’ reading comprehension and motivate students towards reading, promote their interest and encouragement in reading comprehension, develop their reading comprehension skills, and aid them in accomplishing reading comprehension tasks successfully. As specialists in English language teaching, previous teachers of English and psychology, supervisors and headmasters see that to such extent the aim of reading comprehension was not achieved. So, it is shown that students in our schools still face difficulties in answering the questions. The researchers see that this refers to the difficulty in teaching and the reading comprehension texts themselves. As supervisors, headmasters and now university professors of teaching English to non- native speakers’ notice that teachers neglect using the speed reading strategies (skimming and scanning) in Jordanian schools. Also, the researchers see that the reading comprehension texts lack enough questions that stimulate students to comprehend information. Harrison (1975), Rivers and Temerely (1978), Nuttal (1982) recommended to use speed reading strategies. Jarrah (1988) conducted a study to find the effect of using the analytical method on the first secondary graders’ achievement in Al-Zarqa area in Jordan. The researcher used speed reading strategies which is similar to the present study. Jarrah (1988) found that there was significant difference at (α≤ 0.01) between the means of both experimental and controlled groups. The researcher recommended the Ministry of Education to train teachers on the use of the analytical method which include the speed reading strategies. Rababa’h (1991) conducted a study to find the effect of using skimming and scanning in the first secondary science stream students’ achievement. He conducted his study on male and female students. The results of his study showed that there was significant difference at (α≤ 0.05) among experimental ones. The researcher said that difference were due to the training on the use of the speed reading strategies. The researcher recommended www.ccsenet.org/elt English Language Teaching Vol. 7, No. 6; 2014 169 that the Ministry of Education in Jordan should have exercises in the textbooks about the speed reading strategies. Again, he recommended teachers to prepare their own exercises in case the unavailability in some lessons. The results of this study were with Al-Rababa’h (1991) results as there is an effect for training on the use of speed reading strategies, but this study differs in case it doesn’t include female students. Dyon and Haselgrove (2000) conducted a study and wrote that rapid scanning or skimming of material on screen has become a frequent activity with using a range of questions types, comprehensions was measured after reading from screen at both a normal and fast reading speed. Analysis of the scrolling movements showed that the overall time spent pausing between movements was the best prediction of comprehension. Salataci and Akyel (2002) conducted a study to investigate the reading strategies of Turkish EFL students in Turkish and English and the possible effects of reading instruction on reading in Turkish and English. The participants consisted of 8 Turkish students. The data came from think-aloud protocols, observation, a background questionnaire, a semi-structured interview and the reading component of the PET (the Preliminary English Test). The results indicated that strategy instruction had a positive effect on both Turkish and English reading strategies and reading comprehension in English. Chang (2010) carried out a study to develop reading fluency. The researcher used a 13-week timed reading activity was integrated into a normal curriculum with the aim of improving students’ reading rates. Participants were 84 college students divided into an experimental and a control group. The test instruments involved pretests and posttests on reading speed and comprehension. Results showed that students doing the timed reading activity increased their reading speed on average by 29 words per minute (25%) and comprehension by 63 (4%). Students who did the timed reading activity became confident in their reading. Bahlool (2013) investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction strategy on developing ninth graders’ English reading comprehension skills at Gaza UNRWA Schools. The researcher used two tools, a questionnaire to determine the degree of importance of the reading comprehension skills, an achievement test (Pre & post test). The sample of the study was 70 male students, (36) in the experimental and (34) in the control. Both groups were pre-tested to assure that they both were equivalent. The findings revealed that there were significant differences between the mean scores attained by the experimental group and those by the control group in favor of the experimental group in all skills. In the light of these results, the researcher recommends that EFL Palestinian teachers should apply differentiated instruction strategy to develop reading comprehension skills. A lot of studies were conducted to see the effect of using creative thinking on developing reading comprehension skills. Through looking at the results of some studies like Gonzales (2000), Al-Qudah, A-Khataybeh and Mohaidat (2002), Bsharah(2003), Bani Yassin (2005), Clifford (2005) and Al-Eidie (2010), one can notice that using creative thinking gas positive effect on teaching and learning process and it was helpful; it improved students’ reading comprehension and develop their attitudes toward reading. From all the mentioned articles, we see that there is an effect of using speed reading strategies on the students’ achievement and their better comprehension. 2. Material Studied and Background of the Study 2.1 The Nature of Speed Reading Strategies A lot of writers defined reading as the getting of meaning which the writer means from his or her writing. Flesh (1955) defined reading as getting the meaning from a certain structure to letters. Goodman (1970), Nuttal (1982) and Jacobowitz (1988) agreed as it is an interaction operation. The present researchers agreed with Goodman’s definition as reading is an interaction operation that the reader forms expectations about the content he is reading as after that to choose the most practical signs that help to get the meaning. 2.2 Reading Strategies Beale (2013) wrote ideas about speed reading strategies as “people who know how to skim and scan are flexible readers. They read according to their purpose and get information they need quickly without wasting time. They do not need everything which is increases their reading speed. Their skill lies in knowing what specific information to read and which method to read” (p. 1). The strategies skimming and scanning are well-known and help students to improve their speed. Macleod (2013) wrote that skimming involves a through overview of a text and implies a reading competence. Scanning is more a limited activity, only retrieving information relevant to a purpose. Brown (1994) suggested that “perhaps the two most valuable reading strategies for learners as well as native speakers are skimming and scanning” (p. 283). Pugh (1978) suggested that since scanning is a less complex style of reading it can be introduced first. Skimming www.ccsenet.org/elt English Language Teaching Vol. 7, No. 6; 2014 170 requires greater fluency and more practice is required, so it should be introduced later. Skimming: This is reading a text or a passage quickly to get a general idea. Learners do not need to read every word when skimming, so teachers set this as a timed task and to encourage speed. It can be through looking at the title, introduction, and any diagram and sub-titles. Skimming is useful in three different situations. In the pre-reading, reviewing and in the reading process. Different literary methodologists agreed about steps which can be followed in skimming. 1) Read the title 2) Read the introduction or the first paragraph 3) Read the first sentence of every other paragraph 4) Read any headings and sub-headings 5) Notice any pictures, charts, or graphs 6) Notice any italicized or bold face word or phrases 7) Read the summary or last paragraph. (From http://pioneer.netserv.chula.ac.th/-pkanchan/html/skim.htm). Scanning: It is to cover a great deal of material rapidly to locate a specific facet or piece of information. It is useful to find specific name, date, statistic, or fact without reading the whole text. In the same website which was mentioned (2013) about skimming, suggested steps to follow in scanning. 1) To keep in mind at all times what are you searching for? If you hold the image of the word or idea clearly in mind, it is likely to appear more clearly than the surrounding words. 2) To anticipate in what form the information is likely to appear, numbers, proper nouns, etc. 3) To analyze the organization of the content before starting to scan. ‐ If material is familiar, the learner may be able to scan the entire text in a single search. ‐ If the material is difficult or too long, a preliminary skimming may be necessary to determine which part of the article to scan. 4) Let your eyes run rapidly over several lines of print at a time. 5) When you find the sentence that you seeks, read the entire sentence completely. Skimming and scanning help in improving the students’ speed and help in improving their abilities of comprehension. Broughton et al. (1980), Smith (1971) and Brower and Bever (1970) agreed that if the learner wants to be fast in comprehending a text, he or she needs to practice skimming and scanning. Through reading different articles, the researchers suggested a way to practice skimming. 1) To get a conclusion ‐ To get use of the title and sub-titles. ‐ To read the first and the last sentences of each paragraph. 2) To answer general questions. ‐ To remember the information we need. ‐ To determine the things that help to find the answer from the question itself. ‐ To read the first sentence and the keywords in each paragraph. ‐ To move the eyes rapidly to get signs about the answers. ‐ To read the specific part to get the answer. In talking about scanning, the researchers see that Wirringachitra’s (1982) idea is suitable which is similar to what is mentioned in talking about scanning. Speed reading techniques are suggested through browsing in the internet (2013) as follows: ‐ The hand: Move your hand slowly straight down the page as your eyes follow. ‐ The card: to move the card to be followed by the brain. ‐ The sweep: to use the hand to help draw the eyes across the page. www.ccsenet.org/elt English Language Teaching Vol. 7, No. 6; 2014 171 ‐ The hop: to lift fingers and make two bounced on each line to catch sections of three or four words and then move on. ‐ The zig-zag: to take the hand and cut the text in a diagonal motion for two or the line. (available at www.scanningessay.com/exams/speed-reading.php) 3. Methodology 3.1 Problem of the Study To improve reading process in the secondary stage is a main aim for our curricula in Jordan. The Ministry of Education (1971) introduced the main aim of reading comprehension in English Language is that to help students to read and comprehend English in different contents. Teachers mostly claim that students suffer from lack of reading comprehension in English language .The researchers think that training students and helping them to acquire the ability to practice scanning and skimming, help students to be improved in their reading comprehension speed. (Al-Alwan & Bsharah, 2011) .The study aimed to answer the following question: Are there significant differences in reading comprehension due to the speed reading strategies among the second secondary literary students in English language? 3.2 The Instructional Material To achieve the aims of this study, the researchers used the material which was used by Rababa’h (1991). To check the suitability of the material, the researchers gave the material to specialists, supervisors and teachers for their comments. Then, the researchers took into consideration all the comments and changes to have the material in its final version. 3.3 Study Hypothesis Is there significant difference (α≤ 0.05) in reading comprehension due to speed reading strategies among the 2nd Secondary Students’ in English Language? 3.4 The aim of the Study This study aimed at investigating the Effect of Speed Reading Strategies on Developing Reading Comprehension among the 2nd Secondary Students’ in English Language. 3.5 The Importance of the Study The importance of the study revealed from the topic it carried out which is expected to be added to educational knowledge. The researchers hope that the results of the study will be taken care from teachers, supervisors and curriculum designers to include speed reading strategies in English language to all levels of students. 3.6 Definition of Terms (Operational Definitions) Skimming: reading a text quickly to get a general idea of meaning. Scanning: reading in order to find specific information. Achievement: it means in this study, the achievement of the second secondary students which will be measured through using a test for the aim mentioned. Secondary Stage: It is the last stage in the Jordanian educational system. It consists of two grades; 1st and 2nd secondary or referred to as 11th and 12th grades. 3.7 Limitations of the Study 1) The results of this study can be generalized only on the second secondary literary male students. 2) The results can be generalized on Al-Korah Directorate of Education and similar directorates. 3.8 Population of the Study The population of the study consists of all second secondary students literary stream in Al-Korah Directorate of Education in the academic year 2013/2014. The total number is 32 sections which formed 750 students. All students in this Directorate have the same background and level of life to a large percentage. Their ages are between 18 and 20. All their teachers were at least B.A holders. 3.9 The Sample of the Study The sample of this study was from Al-Ashrafieh secondary school for boys. The sample was chosen as it is the available sample for the researchers and their teachers were good and co-operative teachers. The two sections www.ccsenet.org/elt English Language Teaching Vol. 7, No. 6; 2014 172 were chosen randomly between controlled and experimental. Section A was the experimental while section B was the controlled one. Twenty–one students were in each section. 3.10 The Instrument of the Study To achieve the aims of the study, the researchers prepared a reading comprehension exam about the reading comprehension. This exam was given after the experiment to see the effect of the experiment and the students’ reading comprehension on reading comprehension. The exam consists of two parts to measure the students’ abilities of using the speed reading strategies. 3.11 The Validity of the Exam The researchers gave the exam to university professors, supervisors and teachers of English language at schools. They were asked to see the validity of the exam whether it is related and appropriate or not. All agreed that the exam was suitable and can evaluate the students’ reading comprehension and abilities on reading comprehension. The researchers computed the correlation coefficient between the degree of item and the total degree on the reading comprehension exam. The item was accepted whenever the correlation coefficient was 0.30 and statistically significant. According to this criterion, all of the items were accepted 3.12 Reliability of the Exam Cronbach Alpha was used and it was (0.65), so, the researchers felt confident about the validity and reliability of the exam. 3.13 Design of the Study The study aims to find the effect of using speed reading strategies on the students’ reading comprehension and it includes the following variables: 1) Independent variable: speed reading strategies (skimming and scanning). 2) Dependent variable: This is the students’ reading comprehension on speed reading strategies. 3.14 Statistical Analysis T. test was used to test the hypothesis of the study. 4. Results of the Study The aim of the study is to see the effect of using speed reading strategies on the second secondary students’ reading comprehension in English language in Jordan during the first semester of the academic year 2013/2014. The hypothesis of the study was that there was no significant difference at (α≤ 0.05) in the second secondary literary stream students’ reading comprehension due to training or without training which are due to the use of speed reading strategies. To check the validity of the results, T.test was used. The results are shown in the following table. Table 1. The results of groups in the pre-test Group No. of students Mean SD T.TEST F Experimental 21 71.75 2.61 0.74 0.35 Controlled 21 68.53 4.32 Through using T.test at (α≤ 0.05) to compare the means of the two groups, it was found that there was no significant difference between the reading comprehensions of the two groups. The researchers assumed that the two groups were equivalent as it is taken from their marks in the first secondary and the two groups were divided with relation to their levels in the first secondary. So, any difference after training should be due to the training on using the speed reading strategies. After conducting the experiment and giving the post-test to both groups, the hypothesis was checked through using T.test at (α≤ 0.05) and the results as shown in the following table. Table 2. The results of groups in the post-test Group No. of students Mean SD T.TEST F Experimental 21 87.72 1.76 13.41 0.14 Controlled 21 72.32 2.35 www.ccsenet.org/elt English Language Teaching Vol. 7, No. 6; 2014 173 The results showed the high level of reading comprehension by the experimental group which appears from the means of both experimental and controlled groups. The results showed that there significant difference between the means of both groups due to the use of speed reading strategies. As a result of that, the Null hypothesis was rejected at (α≤ 0.05). The results showed also that the students in the experimental group were better than the students in the controlled group. The difference between the means was due to the use of speed reading strategies. 5. Discussion of the Results The results of the study showed that there was a significant difference on reading comprehension due to speed reading strategies and that indicated that training was effective for the experimental group which can be due training procedures and the instructional activities improved the students’ performance on the reading comprehension scale as there were no learning chances for the controlled group. The students who participated in the study showed the motivation and attraction during the training sessions based on speed reading strategies which agreed with the theoretical background of the same studies like Broughton et al. (1980), Bever and Bover (1970) and Waldman (1972) about the importance of using speed reading strategies to improve the students’ comprehension The results of the study agreed with Baunann’s (1984), Barnett’s (1988) and Rababa’h’s (1991) results in their studies of training students on comprehension skill to get the main idea. The result approved what Mackenzie (2011) clarified about the thinking through reading comprehension strategies that should follow the following steps : Making Connections, Retelling, Visualizing, Asking Questions, Making Predictions, Making Inferences, Understanding Text Structure, Determining Importance, Identifying the Author’s Message, and Synthesizing. 6. Recommendations The researchers recommended 1) The Ministry of Education in Jordan should include exercises of speed reading on reading comprehension in English language textbooks. 2) The Ministry of Education in Jordan should train teachers mainly the newly appointed on the use of speed reading strategies. 3) Teachers should prepare in advance exercises including speed reading strategies if they are unavailable in any class. References Adams, A., Garnine, D., & Gersten, R. (1982). International Strategies for Studying Content Area Texts in the Intermediate Grades. Reading Research Quarterly, 18(1), 27-55. Al-Alwan, A., & Bsharah, M. (2011). The effectiveness of proposed reading strategy (KWL) to activate the background knowledge in reading comprehension of a sample of Tenth Grade Students in Ma’an city. Studies Journal, University of Jordan, 38(1). Al-Eidie, R. A. (2010). The Effect of Using Creative Thinking Skills on the Development of Reading Comprehension of Female Tenth Grade Students in Southern Al-Mazar Directorate of Education (Unpublished M.A.thesis, Mu’tah University, Jordan). Al-Qudah, M., Al-Khataybeh, M., & Mohaidat, M. (2002). Reading Comprehension: Influence of Brainstorming. Abhath Al-Yarmouk, 18(3B), 109-120. Bahlool, A. (2013). The Effect of Differentiated Instruction Strategy on Developing Ninth Graders’ English Reading Comprehension Skills at Gaza UNRWA Schools (Unpublished M.A. thesis, the Islamic University of Gaza). Barnett, M. (1988). Teaching Reading Strategies: How Methodology Affects Course Articulation. Journal of Foreign Language Annals, 21(2), 109-115. Baumann, J. (1984). The Effectiveness of a Direct Method Instruction Paradigm for Teaching Main Idea Comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 20(1), 93-105. Beale, A. M. (2013). Anne Arundal Community College. Retrieved from www.aacc.ed/tutoring/file/skimming.pdf Bever, T., & Bower, T. (1970). How to read without listening. In M. Lester (Ed.), Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. www.ccsenet.org/elt English Language Teaching Vol. 7, No. 6; 2014 174 Brown, D. (1994). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Upper Saddle River, Prentice Hall Regents. Bsharah, M. (2003). The Effect of A training Program for Higher Order Thinking Skills on Developing Critical and Creative Thinking Skills of 10th Grade Students (Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, Yarmouk University). Chang, A. (2010). The effect of a timed reading activity on EFL learners: Speed, comprehension, and perceptions. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22(2), 284-303. Clarke, M., & Silberstein, S. (1979). Towards a realization of psycholinguistic principles in the ESL classroom. In R. Mackay et al. (Ed.), Reading in A Second Language. Newbury House Publishers, Inc. Rowley. Clifford, A. (2005). Assessing the Use of Creative Problem Solving Skills and Generic Influences on Learning in Clinical Reasoning by Physician Assistant Students (Ph.D, Drexel University, USA). Farstrup, A. (2002). What research has to say about Reading Instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Gonzales, D. (2000). The Effectiveness of a Language Experience Approach in Improving Creative Writing Skills of Limited and Non-English Proficient Students in an “Author Center Program” (Ph.D. The Claremount Graduate University, U.S.A). Goodman, K. (1970). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. In H. Singer, & R. B. Ruddel (Ed.), Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading. Newark, Del: International University Press. Goodman, K. (1971). Psycholinguistic universals in the reading process. In P. Pimsleur, & T. Quinn (Ed.), The Psychology of Second Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jarrar, A. (1988). The Effect of Using the Analytical Method on the Achievement of First Secondary Class Students in Reading Comprehension (Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Jordan). Mackenzie, A. (2011). Reading Comprehension Strategies. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from ReadingComprehensionLessons.com Macleod, M. (2013). Types of Reading. Retrieved from fis.ucalgary.ca/Brian/611/reading type.Html #references Mary, C. D., & Mark, H. (2000). The effect of reading speed and reading pattern on the understanding of text read from screen. Journal Research Reading, 23(2), 260-273. Ministry of Education. (1971). English Curriculum: Secondary Stage. Amman, Jordan. Ministry of Education. (2002). English Curriculum: Secondary Stage. Amman, Jordan. Nuttal, C. (1982). Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Heinmann Educational Books, London. Pugh, A. K. (1978). Silent Reading-An introduction to its study and teaching. London: Heinemamm Educational Books. Rababa’h, G. (1991). The Effect of Using Skimming and Scanning on First Secondary Scientific Class Students’ Achievement in Reading Comprehension (Unpublished M.A. thesis, Yarmouk University). Salataci, R., & Akyel, A. (2002). Possible Effects of Strategy Instruction on L1 and L2 Reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14(1), 1-17. Speed Reading. (2013). Retrieved from www.scanningessay.com/exams/speed-readingh.php Waldman, J. (1972). Reading with Speed and Confidence. Random House, New York. Widdowson, H. (1979). Explorations in Applied Linguistics. Oxford University Press. Wiriyachitra, A. (1982). A scientific reading program. English Teaching FORUM, 20(3), 20-23. Yassin, T. B. (2005). The Effect of Teaching Creative Thinking Skills through Arabic Language on Reading comprehension and Creative Abilities for Third Grade Primary Students in Amman (Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan). Copyrights Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Mahmoud Sulaiman Hamad Bani Abdelrahman1 & Muwafaq Saleem Bsharah1

کلیاتی درباره تندخوانی

word Groups Skimming Meta Guiding PhotoReading Advanced Speed Reading – Single Fixation of Lines and Text Blocks Quantum Reading

Speed Reading reading-glasses-57288 As you read this sentence, how many words per minute do you think you are consuming and comprehending? The majority of people can only read at 150 – 300 words per minute. A speed reader, on the other hand, can consume anywhere from 600 to 4,000 words per minute while still comprehending the majority of what they read. If you’ve ever seen someone speedread, you no doubt have either stared in amazement or disbelief. How can someone skim over words and still manage to comprehend everything that was written better than most people who take their sweet time? Are they really taking in everything? Is it even enjoyable? This short article will give you a quick intro into the world of speed reading, and introduce you to some of the various techniques used by masters of speed reading around the world. U.S. presidents John F. Kennedy and Jimmy Carter were both advocates of speed reading and urged their staff to take lessons. At the World Championship Speed Reading Competition, top contestants can blaze through at a rate of 2,000 words per minute while maintaining at least 50% comprehension. Of course, 50% comprehension may not be suitable for every situation, in which case the speed may need to be scaled back. However, in some situations, all that is warranted is a quick skim. Speed reading will allow you to skim faster than other people who ‘œskim’ in a normal way. There are several methods to speed reading, and we will cover them here. Word Groups fixations When we first learn to read, we begin by grouping letters together to form words. Thus, we probably started out at a rate of maybe fifty words per minute (WPM). And as we begin to get better at reading, letters strung together become words and we don’t need to sound out each letter as we’re reading. This improves our reading to the aforementioned 150 – 300 WPM. But why did we stop at words? Why not group words together? When we read a word at a time, our eye must readjust and focus on each word. This takes around 250 milliseconds, which may sound fast, but when you multiply it by every word you read, this becomes a huge bottleneck for our reading. So the obvious next step in reading evolution is to read more than one word at a time. One of the ways we can do this is with our peripheral vision. The range of your peripheral vision will differ from someone else’s – range of focus can differ greatly from person to person. So you will need to determine that first. Looking at the beginning of each paragraph, how many words can you see with your peripheral vision without reading forward? That is how many words you will be comfortable with grouping. Skimming book-67049_640 Skimming is an important skill that is more prevalent in adults than children, because adults have had more practice reading and are more comfortable skipping certain text than children. You probably have at least some practice in skimming. Skimming is the act of searching paragraphs of text for prominent words that will give us clues to the overall meaning of the paragraph. This comes more naturally to some than others, and skimming skills can be improved with practice. This typically results in lower comprehension due to a large set of the words being skipped over. Articles rich in information, such as a college thesis, would not be the most ideal situation for skimming, whereas a news article about a political campaign may be perfectly suited for this quick reading. Skimming can propel reading levels to 700 WPM or higher, but comprehension usually suffers. When comprehension is the key objective and time is not of the essence, skimming should not be used. When time is critical, however, skimming can actually aid comprehension. Meta Guiding meta guiding If you’ve ever seen a speed reader, you’ve no doubt seen their hands moving quickly across the pages, back and forth as their eyes follow. This process is called meta guiding, and is used to speed up and broaden their visual span. It also reduces subvocalization, the process of mentally sounding out words. As we subvocalize, we are slowing down our reading ability because we are essentially reading at the same rate we speak at. We are capable of reading much faster than speaking, so separating the two provides reading and comprehension benefits. Visualizing each word is required for this to be completely effective, however. PhotoReading photo reading Learning Strategies Corporation promotes their product commercial product, ‘PhotoRead’ with the promise of photoreading at 25,000 WPM, although these rates are doubtful, at least when it comes to quality comprehension. The product finds its basis in Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP). NASA did a study in 2000 on the product using standardized reading comprehension tests, and found that PhotoReaders on average took longer to read texts and comprehended them with much less accuracy than normal readers. Advanced Speed Reading – Single Fixation of Lines and Text Blocks photoreading Fixation is something our eyes do naturally. But if it is done incorrectly, it can slow down reading rates. What is fixation? Think of an imaging popping up on a screen. Your eyes take a moment to adjust and focus. Fixation is when your eyes pick a spot on the image, stop moving, and focus. This is what keeps things from being blurry. Size does not matter, nor distance. But the same principle applies to reading. Try reading this sentence rapidly. You may notice how your eyes stop on every word or two to get a focus. This may not be a long time, probably a few hundred milliseconds. These are called ‘eye stops’ and they occur throughout the day. You probably never even notice. As you read, your eyes are also moving along though, so they have to ‘jump’ from word to word. This is called ‘eye jump’ and it works in tandem with eye stops. This plays a large part in subvocalization, which slows down reading. If you recall earlier, we learned that it can take around 250 milliseconds for your eye to focus during these eye stops. By reducing the eye stops in each line of text, you are reducing the amount of time it takes to focus, and thereby reducing your overall time to read a line. Quantum Reading quantum Probably the most dubious of the group, Quantum Reading takes a total cognitive approach to reading based on how the brain takes in and processes information. The idea is to join the logic of the left brain with the conceptual abilities of the right brain. This supposedly integrates our conscious and subconscious mind and gives the reader the ability to rapidly process written words and easily retrieve later. If you watch a video of these readers, they simply touch the book and fan through the pages. They call this ‘undulatory reading.’ In fact, the videos show these Japanese children fanning pages and holding and touching the books. Almost no reading is necessary. This is more in the realm of psychics and clairvoyance than reading. Its proponents however, swear by it and say they have witnessed this first hand. This will be left up to the reader to decide.

چگونه سریعتر بخوانیم: 10 روش برای افزایش سرعت خواندن

در اینجا 10 روش اثبات شده برای کمک به افزایش سرعت مطالعه وجود دارد.

1. Stop the Inner Monologue One’s inner monologue, also known as subvocalization, is an extremely common trait among readers. It is the process of speaking the words in your head as you read, and it is the biggest obstacle that gets in the way of you being able to increase your reading speed. If you’re hearing voices in your head when you’re reading, don’t fret. As long as it is your own voice, reading along with you, you’re fine. In fact, this is how teachers teach kids to read – say the words silently in your head as you read. Do you recall the instructions, “Read in your head, as I read the passage aloud”, that were said fairly often in the classrooms? That is one of the ways in which this habit of having an inner monologue was ingrained into you as a young reader. When you were initially taught to read, you were taught to sound out everything and read aloud. Once you were proficient enough at that, your teacher had you start saying the words in your head. This is how the habit originated, and most people continue reading this way. It does not adversely affect them in any way, until they start wanting to read at a faster pace. If you are seeking to increase your reading speed, this is the first thing you must learn to overcome. Why does this slow you down? The average reading speed is pretty much the same as the average talking speed. According to Forbes, the average adult reading speed is 300 words per minute. The average talking speed is the same. Since most people are in the habit of saying the words aloud in their head as they read, they tend to read around the same pace as they talk. This means, your reading speed will only increase so much if you continue to keep up that inner monologue. If you want to continue to increase your reading speed, you need to eliminate it. To do this, you need to understand one thing: It’s unnecessary. You do not need to say every word in your head in order to understand the material you are reading. It was when you are younger, but now you are able to input the meaning from just seeing the words. Your brain still processes the information. For example, when you see a “YIELD” sign, do you actually stop to speak the word in your head? Of course not. You just look at it and process it automatically. This is what you need to be doing when you read your print material, such as books or paperwork. If you have a hard time attempting this, try reading with instrumental music playing in headphones or chew on some gum. A distraction will keep your brain less focused on subvocalization, though you will still look at the words and process them. 2. Word–Chunking Word-chunking closely parallels with the idea of eliminating the inner monologue. This is the act of reading multiple words at once, and is the key to reading faster. All of these reading tips tie together, yet word-chunking is probably the most active tool to use when you work to increase your reading speed. A person can take in several words at a time, even though we are trained – as mentioned with the inner monologue – to read each word at a time and not miss a single article. Using your peripheral vision is one way to make this step easier, but we will get to that in the next section. For now, focus on trying to read three words with one glance. Continue on down the page like that, taking note of how much faster you complete the entire page of text. You are still able to process and comprehend what you read, but spend far less time doing it. Now, take that concept one step further. Take a pencil and lightly draw two vertical, parallel lines down your page, separating the text into three sections. Start at the top left of the page as usual, and cover up everything below that line with your hand or a piece of paper. Focus on reading the text in each section as one thing. Chunk the words together, and read them at a glance as you would a road sign. Keep doing this down the page, moving the paper accordingly. You will notice that your speed was faster than before. Continue with this method until you feel comfortable enough to challenge yourself a bit more. 3. Do Not Reread the Words on the Page Before we move on to the peripheral vision part – that’s the real kicker – you’re going to want to make sure you break the habit of rereading the words on the page. If you watch the average person’s eyes as they read, you will notice they jump and flit about. They do not just flow evenly back and forth, as they should. This is because the average person – you do this, too – tends to backtrack over words they have already read. This is one thing that prevents you from being able to increase your reading speed. You most likely do this without even realizing that you are doing it, which makes it a bit of a tricky habit to break out of. The easiest way, even though you may feel a bit childish, is to use your finger or bookmark to guide you along. Keep your finger running back and forth across the page, without stopping or going back. Keep tracking the words as your finger continues to make its way down the text. When you get to the end, think about what you read. You did not go back over a single word (I hope!), and yet you still recall what you have read. 4. Use Peripheral Vision Congratulations! You’ve made it to the key step that really ties everything together. While this may not be the final step, it’s certainly a critical one. Use the techniques from everything above to view and comprehend several words at one time. Instead of chunking in smaller groups of words, try reading one line at a time. This involves looking at the center of the line, and using your peripheral vision to read the rest of it. Scan the page in this manner and, when you reach the bottom, you will find that you still understood what you read, but you did it in record time. 5. Use a Timer Speaking of ‘record time’, now is your chance to test yourself and work on how to increase your reading speed each time you read. Set a timer for one minute, reading normally as the time dwindles down. When the timer goes off, note how many pages you have read. The website, WordstoPages, will help you to figure out how many words you have read. Now, combine everything you have learned and repeat the test. Jot down that number, too. Keep doing this, continuing to beat your previous count each time. Set a daily or weekly goal, and treat yourself when you reach it. Continue with this little game, and you’ll be able to increase your reading speed in no time! 6. Set a Goal Holding yourself accountable will better ensure you stick with your reading and your timer tests. Give yourself a goal of a certain number of pages to read each day/week/etc., and stick to it. When you reach it, treat yourself. Incentive never hurt anyone! 7. Read MORE The old adage, “Practice makes perfect,” is actually pretty darn accurate. Any professional, artist, musician, etc. practices their work regularly. A reader should be doing the same thing. The more you read, the more you will be better at it. The better you are at reading, the more you will increase your reading speed. Theodore Roosevelt read one book before breakfast, and then three or four more in the evening. He also read papers and other such pamphlet-style reading material. I’m not sure how long these books were, but I am going to assume they were of average length. Use his obsession as fuel for your own goal. 8. Use a Marker Do you find your vision slipping and sliding through the page as you read? Not a problem. Simply place an index card below each line, and slip it down as you read. This will ensure you stay at reading one line at a time, rather than flitting your eyes about and taking nothing in. 9. Work on Improving Your Vocabulary Think about it: You’re reading along, and then you run into a word you don’t know. Do you skip it? Do you try to figure it out by context? Do you stop to look it up? Whichever course of action you take, you are slowing your time significantly, if not stopping it all together to go and look up the retarding word. If you work on improving your vocabulary, you will know more words. The more words you add to your repertoire, the faster you read. The faster you read, the more you can read. It may be self-evident, but it’s important. 10. Skim the Main Points FIRST Finally, when you’re in a real time-crunch and need to get something read by yesterday, take a deep breath and calm down. Open the book, and take some time reading over all the main points. Read the table of contents. Read the subtitles. Read the captions under the diagrams. Get an overall feel for the chapter/section/etc.. Next, read the first paragraph of each main section. Read the last. Read the middle. Think this over in your head, and piece it together. Then, start reading everything else while employing the techniques we have just discussed. You’ll retain your information better, as well as your get your reading done faster. In summation, the next time you need to read something quickly, simply tell yourself to “Shut up and look at the page!”

SPEED READING

How to Read Faster

How to Read Faster: 10 Ways to Increase Your Reading Speed Do you have a lot of paperwork to get through with a deadline that continues to stalk you around every corner? Do you have a lot of reading to do? Do you simply just want to read at a faster rate, whether it be for your own personal reasons, or for work? So, how to read faster? Here are 10 proven ways to help increase your reading speed. 1. Stop the Inner Monologue One’s inner monologue, also known as subvocalization, is an extremely common trait among readers. It is the process of speaking the words in your head as you read, and it is the biggest obstacle that gets in the way of you being able to increase your reading speed. If you’re hearing voices in your head when you’re reading, don’t fret. As long as it is your own voice, reading along with you, you’re fine. In fact, this is how teachers teach kids to read – say the words silently in your head as you read. Do you recall the instructions, “Read in your head, as I read the passage aloud”, that were said fairly often in the classrooms? That is one of the ways in which this habit of having an inner monologue was ingrained into you as a young reader. When you were initially taught to read, you were taught to sound out everything and read aloud. Once you were proficient enough at that, your teacher had you start saying the words in your head. This is how the habit originated, and most people continue reading this way. It does not adversely affect them in any way, until they start wanting to read at a faster pace. If you are seeking to increase your reading speed, this is the first thing you must learn to overcome. Why does this slow you down? The average reading speed is pretty much the same as the average talking speed. According to Forbes, the average adult reading speed is 300 words per minute.[1] The average talking speed is the same. Since most people are in the habit of saying the words aloud in their head as they read, they tend to read around the same pace as they talk. This means, your reading speed will only increase so much if you continue to keep up that inner monologue. If you want to continue to increase your reading speed, you need to eliminate it. To do this, you need to understand one thing: It’s unnecessary. You do not need to say every word in your head in order to understand the material you are reading. It was when you are younger, but now you are able to input the meaning from just seeing the words. Your brain still processes the information. For example, when you see a “YIELD” sign, do you actually stop to speak the word in your head? Of course not. You just look at it and process it automatically. This is what you need to be doing when you read your print material, such as books or paperwork. If you have a hard time attempting this, try reading with instrumental music playing in headphones or chew on some gum. A distraction will keep your brain less focused on subvocalization, though you will still look at the words and process them. 2. Word–Chunking Word-chunking closely parallels with the idea of eliminating the inner monologue. This is the act of reading multiple words at once, and is the key to reading faster. All of these reading tips tie together, yet word-chunking is probably the most active tool to use when you work to increase your reading speed. A person can take in several words at a time, even though we are trained – as mentioned with the inner monologue – to read each word at a time and not miss a single article. Using your peripheral vision is one way to make this step easier, but we will get to that in the next section. For now, focus on trying to read three words with one glance. Continue on down the page like that, taking note of how much faster you complete the entire page of text. You are still able to process and comprehend what you read, but spend far less time doing it. Now, take that concept one step further. Take a pencil and lightly draw two vertical, parallel lines down your page, separating the text into three sections. Start at the top left of the page as usual, and cover up everything below that line with your hand or a piece of paper. Focus on reading the text in each section as one thing. Chunk the words together, and read them at a glance as you would a road sign. Keep doing this down the page, moving the paper accordingly. You will notice that your speed was faster than before. 3. Do Not Reread the Words on the Page Before we move on to the peripheral vision part – that’s the real kicker – you’re going to want to make sure you break the habit of rereading the words on the page. If you watch the average person’s eyes as they read, you will notice they jump and flit about. They do not just flow evenly back and forth, as they should. This is because the average person – you do this, too – tends to backtrack over words they have already read. This is one thing that prevents you from being able to increase your reading speed. You most likely do this without even realizing that you are doing it, which makes it a bit of a tricky habit to break out of. The easiest way, even though you may feel a bit childish, is to use your finger or bookmark to guide you along. Keep your finger running back and forth across the page, without stopping or going back. Keep tracking the words as your finger continues to make its way down the text. When you get to the end, think about what you read. You did not go back over a single word (I hope!), and yet you still recall what you have read. 4. Use Peripheral Vision Congratulations! You’ve made it to the key step that really ties everything together. While this may not be the final step, it’s certainly a critical one. Use the techniques from everything above to view and comprehend several words at one time. Instead of chunking in smaller groups of words, try reading one line at a time. This involves looking at the center of the line, and using your peripheral vision to read the rest of it. Scan the page in this manner and, when you reach the bottom, you will find that you still understood what you read, but you did it in record time. 5. Use a Timer Speaking of ‘record time’, now is your chance to test yourself and work on how to increase your reading speed each time you read. Set a timer for one minute, reading normally as the time dwindles down. When the timer goes off, note how many pages you have read. The website, WordstoPages, will help you to figure out how many words you have read. Now, combine everything you have learned and repeat the test. Jot down that number, too. Keep doing this, continuing to beat your previous count each time. Set a daily or weekly goal, and treat yourself when you reach it. Continue with this little game, and you’ll be able to increase your reading speed in no time! 6. Set a Goal Holding yourself accountable will better ensure you stick with your reading and your timer tests. Give yourself a goal of a certain number of pages to read each day/week/etc., and stick to it. When you reach it, treat yourself. Incentive never hurt anyone! 7. Read MORE The old adage, “Practice makes perfect,” is actually pretty darn accurate. Any professional, artist, musician, etc. practices their work regularly. A reader should be doing the same thing. The more you read, the more you will be better at it. The better you are at reading, the more you will increase your reading speed. Theodore Roosevelt read one book before breakfast, and then three or four more in the evening. He also read papers and other such pamphlet-style reading material. I’m not sure how long these books were, but I am going to assume they were of average length. Use his obsession as fuel for your own goal. 8. Use a Marker Do you find your vision slipping and sliding through the page as you read? Not a problem. Simply place an index card below each line, and slip it down as you read. This will ensure you stay at reading one line at a time, rather than flitting your eyes about and taking nothing in. 9. Work on Improving Your Vocabulary Think about it: You’re reading along, and then you run into a word you don’t know. Do you skip it? Do you try to figure it out by context? Do you stop to look it up? Whichever course of action you take, you are slowing your time significantly, if not stopping it all together to go and look up the retarding word. If you work on improving your vocabulary, you will know more words. The more words you add to your repertoire, the faster you read. The faster you read, the more you can read. It may be self-evident, but it’s important. 10. Skim the Main Points FIRST Finally, when you’re in a real time-crunch and need to get something read by yesterday, take a deep breath and calm down. Open the book, and take some time reading over all the main points. Read the table of contents. Read the subtitles. Read the captions under the diagrams. Get an overall feel for the chapter/section/etc.. Next, read the first paragraph of each main section. Read the last. Read the middle. Think this over in your head, and piece it together. Then, start reading everything else while employing the techniques we have just discussed. You’ll retain your information better, as well as your get your reading done faster. In summation, the next time you need to read something quickly, simply tell yourself to “Shut up and look at the page!” Bonus: Simple Technique To Speed Up Your Comprehension Reading faster can help you learn more stuff quicker. But sometimes reading faster isn’t enough. You want to be able to comprehen complicated concepts or ideas faster too. There’s a simple technique you can use to do just that. If you want to find out how, just join the free Fast Track Class – Spark Your Learning Genius. It’s a focused session that will greatly boost your learning speed. Reserve your spot for free now.

SPEED READING

What Is Speed Reading

What Is Speed Reading You have so many books waiting for your attention, but you just don’t have enough time! Don’t you wish you could read faster without compromising your knowledge intake? This is where a valuable learning technique comes to the rescue: speed reading. Speed reading is the top skill to learn in 2020. Read on to find out all about this amazing technique! What Is Speed Reading? On average, an adult can read somewhere between 200 to 300 words per minute. With speed reading skills, you can read much faster—around 1500 words per minute.[1] Yes, that sounds impossible, but it’s true. In order to understand how this skill works, you first need to know how the reading process works inside a human’s brain. The Reading Process The first step is for the eyes to look at a word. This “fixation” on every word takes around 0.25 seconds. Next, you start moving your eyes to the following word. It takes 0.1 seconds for the brain to move from one word to the next. This is called “saccade.” Usually, you take in 4-5 words in your head, or a sentence, at once. After all the fixations and saccades, the brain goes over the entire phrase again in order to process the meaning. This takes around half a second. All in all, this means average people read 200 to 300 words in a minute. Speeding up the Process The concept of speed reading is to speed up this process by at least 5 times. Since the saccade period cannot be shortened any further, speed reading emphasizes quicker fixations. To accomplish this, scientists recommend that the reader skips the sub-vocalization: when the readers actually say the word in their mind, even when reading silently. Basically, speed reading is the technique of only seeing the words instead of speaking them silently. Do not confuse this with skimming. When a reader skims through a text, they skip the parts that their brain considers to be unnecessary. You may skip important information in this process, and skimming does not allow the brain to retain what has been read. Why Speed Read? Speed reading is not just quick, but it’s also effective. This skill saves a lot of of time without sacrificing information. Also, it has been proven to improve memory. The brain’s performance improves during speed reading, which allows the reader to remember more information than before[2]. Since speed reading stabilizes the brain, the information is processed faster and more efficiently. Believe it or not, this technique leads to improved focus, too. As the brain receives a lot of information during speed reading, there is far less chance of distraction. The brain focuses solely on the job at hand. Since the brain is, after all, a muscle, the process of speed reading acts as an exercise. Just like the rest of your muscles, your brain needs exercise to grow stronger, too. A focused brain means improved logical thinking. As your brain gets used to receiving and organizing so much information so quickly, your thinking process will become faster. As soon as a problem is thrown at you, your brain will quickly put two and two together. You will be able to retrieve stored information, figure out correlations, and come up with new solutions, all within seconds! Greater Benefits With a healthier brain, you can expect better things in other parts of your life, too. A boost in self-esteem is just one of them. As you begin to understand information at a faster pace, you will also begin to figure out more opportunities all around you. With the ability to deeply understand information in a shorter period of time, your confidence levels will quickly grow. Moreover, all the aforementioned benefits will relieve you of stress. With all these advantages, your emotional well-being will be healthier than ever. You’ll feel less stress since your brain will learn to tackle problems efficiently. Speed reading will lead to a relaxed, tension-free lifestyle!

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ااگر اهل مطالعه هستید، راهی جز افزایش سرعت مطالعه ندارید

Speed Reading the Natural way Posted by Enoch Tan Super Reading which is speed reading the natural way, is the one true way that helps you to read faster than ever before. In the past it may have been difficult for you to speed read, because there was still a lot you did not know about in this world and you also had not yet discovered the Integrative Mindset to work with new information you encounter. Through growing up, you’ve learned a lot of things that enable you to understand further information you come across. You have a whole background of knowledge you could use to access new knowledge. It is all about making connections, the faster you can integrate what is new what with what you already know, the faster you can read. The most crucial thing is that it is not the amount of knowledge you have, but it is about attaining the mindset that all these knowledge is related to one another in an inseparable and unified way. And to use this Integrative Mindset to handle all knowledge whether past, present or future. The other crucial understanding is that all things have their most simplified and concise state. Which means there is an essence that you can look for in every piece of information. Every piece of information contains a core. The core is what every other part of that information is attached to. The key to super reading is the schema, which is the background knowledge that you have in your head that relates the material that you are reading about. The super schema follows the framework of unified and simplified knowledge. It is knowledge dealing with knowledge. The more you know, the more you are able to know at an even faster rate. The more you have learned, the faster you are able to learn. It is far more easier to build upon what you already know than it is to start learning something completely new. The truth is, there is nothing completely new ever. No matter what anyone says, everything you presently know can be connected with anything new you encounter. The key is to gain the core knowledge of the mind and reality, and you’ll be able to use that core knowledge to connect with everything else. Have the mindset that all knowledge is unified and therefore can be simplified. To have the integrative mindset is to think as a master. So with the combined understanding of the integrative and simplified nature of all knowledge, you are able to deal with information as a master. There are some speed reading techniques that still do not work for you, because you find them unnatural. Any true skill that exists, was first developed naturally by doing things in the ordinary way. Over time, that things is done better and better until it becomes extraordinary. It becomes an enhanced version of its former state. Reading turns into super reading. Doing things the natural way is always the best way because it is effortless and does not undo itself like the unnatural way. You find that you are able to read a lot faster when you do alot of reading. As I read a lot of things that interest you, it absorbs you and you disappear into your reading. You just go right through and come out the other end. Writing is simply crystallized thought. Thought is like water which flows unceasingly, without form and cannot be grasped fully. Writing pulls thoughts together, gives it structure and presents it to the world in graspable form. It is like crystallizing water by freezing it. It becomes well ordered, structured and observable. Since writing is crystallized thought, the purpose of reading is to derive the key thoughts. So you do not have to read every single word. You just need to sift through with the intention of looking for essence. Believe the subconscious mind is capturing everything else that goes through your eyes. Super reading is intention based reading. Everything you do is based on intention. When you act with awareness of your intentions, your actions will be powerful. Often, your reading will require an awareness of only key information. You don’t need to read all of what you do read. Be Choosy. The psychology of super reading is “If we do not open our eyes, we will not see”. To super read, we must be an open vessel. We must be a sponge ready to soak up information. The great inhibitor is your own thoughts. Worry, doubt, fear, expectation and distraction causes your mind to become cluttered and blocked. This weakens its receptive faculties. The more mind power you use to think, the less you will have to take in new information. You then have a closed vessel. This is not to say we should not think. There are two separate mental processes that we use to operate with. One is thought and analysis, the other is gathering data. We should use both processes well in the right manner at the right time. When we are super reading, we should be in gathering data mode. When a person is super reading, he might make some mistakes but he wouldn’t be bothered by them. Good super readers won’t waste a second of valuable thought time on mistakes. Instead they’re off zooming ahead to soak up more information. This is the whole secret for putting you into the mental state of super reading. You put yourself into gathering data mode but you can choose to switch into thought and analysis whenever you want to. Before you go into speed reading of anything, have the belief that what you are reading is easy to read, and that you can read it fast and finish it in a shorter period of time. Then let your reading flow from word to word, line to line, page to page, sometimes skipping sometimes flowing, all following your intentions for reading. And stopping when appropriate to rest or think. 1. Realize that what you’re about to read is related to what you already know. 2. Get into the flow state of mind for your reading. 3. Have the intention of looking for essence as you read. 4. Flow through your reading like the information is already yours. 5. After reading, walk around and think back about the key portions that you’ve read. The great secret of speed reading is concentration and organization. Speed reading is a state of mind where your attention is so well absorbed in the content that you are able to flow through. The concentration is a quieting of the mind and shutting off from all distracting useless mental activity so that there is full power directed in your reading. When your thoughts and the writings you read are well organized, you are able to concentrate and process information better and faster. Proper concentration is a state of mental quiet, where there is peace of mind. Where there is harmony between the conscious and subconscious mind. The concentration is partly conscious and partly subconscious. It is not a constricted concentration but a relaxed and free one. There is a balance between tension and relaxation. Concentration is simply sustained focus. You can concentrate better when your psychic energy is freed up for the task at hand. That means your mind is fresh for the task because you have resolved other things that needs to be settled. Concentration requires interest. Concentration is will and the will is directed by desire. You must have a powerful desire to know what you are reading about. The more you desire, the more you will focus naturally. The stronger the motive, the greater the concentration. It all begins with desire. Desire is the starting point of all power. Memory of reading requires understanding. Research shows you can only remember what you understand. Reading the front and back covers, first and last page alone can give you the overall idea but it is not enough for complete understanding. All the knowledge and people in the world are advice for you to choose to accept or not to. When you read and you come across things you do not yet accept, simply bypass them and focus on what you’re looking for. Don’t allow yourself to get confused or stumped. If the author isn’t clear, move on. Keep plowing. Skim or skip boring and irrelevant sections. You are the master of what you are reading when nothing holds you back. You may accept certain things later but what matters for now is what you can accept currently. Having this mindset enables you to move right along with unhindered progress. Remember, not every material is meant to be speed read. Unlike what other experts tell you, it is nonsense to think that way. You will sense when something you read just makes you want to slow down and read it at normal speed. You know there is a reason that makes you want to read it that way. Usually it is new mental territory that you’re supposed to cover at normal speed in order to develop proper understanding of it. http://www.mindreality.com/speed-reading-natural-way

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